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Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 www. elsevier. com/locate/foodchemtox A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents q Gurdip Singh b a,* , Sumitra Maurya a,1 , M. P. deLampasona b, Cesar A. N. Catalan b a Chemistry Department, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009, India Instituto de Quimica Organica, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, S. M. de Tucuman 4000, Argentina Received 31 August 2005; accepted 22 February 2007Abstract The antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial potentials of volatile oils and oleoresin of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (leaf and bark) were investigated in the present study. The oleoresins have shown excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil added at the concentration of 0. 02% which were evaluated using peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine and carbonyl values. Moreove r, it was further supported by other complementary antioxidant assays such as ferric thiocyanate method in linoleic acid system, reducing power, chelating and scavenging e? cts on 1,1 0 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. In antimicrobial investigations, using inverted petriplate and food poison techniques, the leaf and bark volatile oils has been found to be highly e? ective against all the tested fungi except Aspergillus ochraceus. However, leaf oleoresin has shown inhibition only for Penicillium citrinum whereas bark oleoresin has caused complete mycelial zone inhibition for Aspergillus ? avus and A. ochraceus along with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, P. citrinum and Penicillium viridicatum at 6 lL. Using agar well di? sion method, leaf volatile oil and oleoresin have shown better results in comparison with bark volatile oil, oleoresin and commercial bactericide, i. e. , ampicillin. Gas chromatographic–mass spectroscopy studies on leaf volatil e oil and oleoresin resulted in the identi? cation of 19 and 25 components, which accounts for the 99. 4% and 97. 1%, respectively of the total amount and the major component was eugenol with 87. 3% and 87. 2%, respectively. The analysis of cinnamon bark volatile oil showed the presence of 13 components accounting for 100% of the total amount. E)-cinnamaldehyde was found as the major component along with d-cadinene (0. 9%), whereas its bark oleoresin showed the presence of 17 components accounting for 92. 3% of the total amount. The major components were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (49. 9%), along with several other components. O 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume; Eugenol; Cinnamaldehyde; Antioxidant assay 1. Introduction Free radical reactions occur in human body and food systems. Free radicals, in the form of reactive oxygen and Part 57.Corresponding author. Tel. : +91 551 2200745 (R)/2202856 (O); fax: +91 551 2340459. E-mail address: [email  p rotected] com (G. Singh). 1 Present address: Agarkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004, India. * q nitrogen species, are an integral part of normal physiology. An over production of these reactive species can occur, due to oxidative stress brought about by the imbalance of bodily antioxidant defence system and free radical formation. These reactive species can react with biomolecules, causing cellular injury and death.This may lead to the development of chronic diseases such as cancers and those that involve the cardio- and cerebrovascular systems. The consumption of fruits and vegetables (Peschel et al. , 2006) containing antioxidants has been found to o? er protection 0278-6915/$ – see front matter O 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10. 1016/j. fct. 2007. 02. 031 G. Singh et al. / Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 1651 against these diseases. Dietary antioxidants can augment cellular defences and help to prevent oxidative damage to cellular c omponents (Halliwell, 1989).Besides playing an important role in physiological systems, antioxidants have been used in food industry to prolong the shelf life of foods, especially those rich in polyunsaturated fats. These components in food are readily oxidized by molecular oxygen and are major cause of oxidative deterioration, nutritional losses, o? ?avour development and discoloration. The addition of synthetic antioxidants, such as propyl gallate, butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT) and tertiary butylhydroquinone has been widely used industrially to control lipid oxidation in foods.However, the use of these synthetic antioxidants has been questioned due to their potential health risks and toxicity (Kahl and Kappus, 1993). The search for antioxidants from natural sources has received much attention and e? orts have been put in to identify compounds that can act as suitable antioxidants to replace synthetic ones. In addition, these naturally occurring a ntioxidants can be formulated as functional foods and nutraceuticals that can help to prevent oxidative damage from occurring in the body.Plants contain a variety of substances called ‘‘Phytochemicals’’ (Pratt, 1992), that owe to naturally occurring components present in plants (Caragay, 1992). The phytochemical preparations with dual functionalities in preventing lipid oxidation and antimicrobial properties have tremendous potential for extending shelf life of food products. Several research groups around the world have succeeded in ? nding and identifying natural antioxidants from herbs and spices using di? erent model systems.The antioxidant activity of Labiatae herbs such as rosemary, sage, summer savory and borage are also well documented (Bandoniene et al. , 2002; Djarmati et al. , 1991; Ho et al. , 2000; Aruoma et al. , 1996; Cuvelier et al. , 1994; Wong et al. , 1995; Chang et al. , 1997; Madsen et al. , 1996; Gordon and Weng, 1992; Takacsova et al. , 1995). However, the aromatic spicy and medicinal plants from Laureceae family are less extensively studied. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, syn C. verum, family Laureceae) is a widely used spice and have many applications in perfumery, ? voring and pharmaceutical industries. Although, the chemical constituents of leaf and bark essential oils of cinnamon have been studied (Raina et al. , 2001; ? Simic et al. , 2004; Jayaprakash et al. , 1997), the potential antioxidant properties have yet not been studied and it seems that investigation on oleoresins are scarce. Hence, in the present work, attempt has been made to explore the possible antioxidant and antimicrobial properties by di? erent methods which can give more comprehensive information especially when the e? ectiveness of multi component natural oleoresins is investigated.The objective of present investigation is to compare the chemical composition of leaf and bark essential oils and oleoresins as well as demonstrate t he possibility of protecting the stored food materials against micro-organism and antioxidative behaviour on mustard oil using as additive by various methods. 2. Materials and methods 2. 1. Chemicals Thiobarbituric acid, pure components eugenol and cinnamaldehyde were received form Merck, Germany. Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), carbendazim were procured from Sigma (Sigma–Aldrich GmbH, Sternheim, Germany) and linoleic acid from Across (New Jersey, USA).BHT, BHA, and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine were purchased from s. d ? ne-chem Ltd, Mumbai, India. Ampicillin was purchased from Ranbaxy Fine chemicals Ltd. , New Delhi, India. Crude mustard oil was purchased from local oil mill, Gorakhpur, India. All solvents used were of analytical grade. 2. 2. Sample extraction Cinnamon leaves and barks were purchased from local market of Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, during January 2004 and voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of the Science faculty, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur.Cinn amon leaves (250 g) and barks (50 mesh particle size) were hydrodistilled using Clevenger’s apparatus to yield essential oils (3. 1% and 2. 5%, respectively). Oleoresins were obtained by extracting 25 g of powdered spice with 250 mL of acetone for 2 h in a Soxhlet extractor. The solvent was evaporated by placing the sample in a vacuum drier under reduced pressure. The viscous oleoresins for leaves and barks, with yield 6. 9% and 9. 7%, respectively, were obtained. Both essential oils and oleoresins were stored in cold condition and until further use. 2. 3. Chemical characterization 2. . 1. Gas chromatography (GC) A Hewlett Packard 6890 (Analytical Technologies SA, Buenos Aires, Argentina) gas chromatograph equipped with column HP-5 (5% phenyl methylsiloxane, length 30 m  · inner diameter 0. 25 mm  · ? lm thickness 0. 25 lm) was used for the analysis whose injector and detector temperatures were maintained at 240 and 250  °C, respectively. The amount of the samples injec ted was 0. 1 lL in split mode (80:1). Carrier gas used was helium with a ? ow rate of 1. 0 mL minA1. The oven temperature for essential oils were programmed linearly as follows: 60  °C (1 min), 60– 185  °C (1.  °C minA1), 185  °C (1 min), 185–275  °C (9  °C minA1 ), 275  °C (5 min) whereas for oleoresins it was as follows: 70  °C (1 min), 70–170  °C (1. 5  °C minA1), 170  °C (1 min), 170–180  °C (9  °C minA1), 280  °C (5 min). 2. 3. 2. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) Analysis of volatile oils and oleoresins were run on a Hewlett Packard (6890) GC–MS system (Analytical Technologies SA, Buenos Aires, Argentina) coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer (model HP 5973) with a capillary column of HP-5MS (5% phenyl methylsiloxane, length = 30 m, inner diameter = 0. 25 mm and ? lm thickness = 0. 5 lm). The injector, GC–MS interface, ion source and selective mass detector temperatures were main tained at 280, 280, 230 and 150  °C respectively. The oven temperature programmed for the volatile oils were same as provided for GC whereas for oleoresins, it was programmed linearly as follows: 60– 185  °C (1. 5  °C minA1), 185  °C (1 min), 185–275  °C (9  °C minA1), 275  °C (2 min). The extract was held at 70  °C (5 min), 70–220  °C (3  °C minA1), 220–280  °C (5  °C minA1) and held at 280  °C for 5 min. 2. 3. 3. Components identi? cation The components of essential oil and oleoresins were identi? d on the basis of comparison of their retention indices and mass spectra with published data (Adams, 2001; Massda, 1976) and computer matching with WILEY 275 and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 3. 0) libraries provided with computer controlling the GC–MS system. The results were also con? rmed by the comparison of the compounds elution order with their relative retention indices on non-polar phase 1652 G. S ingh et al. / Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 2. 4. 2. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging e? ects The DPPH assay was carried out as described by Brand-Williams and his co-workers (1995). , 10, 15, 20, 25 lL of the sample were added to 5 mL of 0. 004% methanol solution of DPPH. After a 30 min incubation period at room temperature, the absorbance was read against a blank at 515 nm. The assay was carried out in triplicate and analyses of all samples were run in duplicate and results are averaged. This test was adopted from a method described by Halliwell et al. (1987). Solutions of the reagents were always prepared freshly. The reaction mixture contained in a ? nal volume of 1. 0 mL, 100 lL of 2-deoxy-2ribose (28 mM in KH2PO4–K2HPO4 bu? er, pH 7. ), 500 lL of various concentrations of the tested oils or the pure compounds in bu? er, 200 lL of 1. 04 mM EDTA and 200 lM FeCl3 (1:1 v/v), 100 lL of 1. 0 mM H2O2 and 100 lL of 1. 0 mM ascorbic acid. Test sampl es were kept at 37  °C for 1 h. The free radical damage imposed on the substrate, deoxyribose, was measured using the thiobarbituric acid test (Ohkawa et al. , 1979; Shimada et al. , 1992). 1. 0 mL of TBA (1%), and 1. 0 mL tricholoroacetic acid (2. 8%) were added to the test tubes and were incubated at 100  °C for 20 min. After cooling, absorbance was measured at 532 nm against a blank containing deoxyribose and bu? r. Reactions were carried out in triplicate. Inhibition (I) of deoxyribose degradation in percent was calculated in the following way: I? %? ? 100X ? A0 A A1 =A0 ? where A0 is the absorbance of the control reaction, and A1 is the absorbance of the test compound. 2. 4. 3. Chelating e? ect and reducing power Chelating e? ect was determined according to the method of Shimada et al. (1992). To 2 mL of the mixture, consisting of 30 mM hexamine, 30 mM potassium chloride and 9 mM ferrous sulphate were added to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 lL of essential oil or oleoresin in methanol ( 5 mL) and 200 lL of 1 mM tetramethyl murexide.After 3 min at room temperature, the absorbance of the mixture was determined at 485 nm. A lower absorbance indicates a higher chelating power. EDTA was used as a positive control. The reducing power was carried out as described before (Oyaizu, 1986). Various amount (5, 10,15, 20 lL) of essential oil or oleoresin (dissolved in 2. 5 mL of methanol) mixed with 2. 5 mL of 200 mM phosphate bu? er (pH = 6. 6) and 2. 5 mL of 1% potassium ferricyanide, and the mixture was incubated at 50  °C for 20 min. After adding 2. 5 mL of 10% trichloroacetic acid, the mixture was centrifuged at 200 g for 10 min in Sigma 3K30 model centrifuger.The organic layer (5 mL) was mixed with 5 mL of deionised water and 1 mL of 0. 1% ferric chloride and the absorbance read at 700 nm in a UV–visible spectrophotometer. reported in the literature (Adams, 2001). The retention indices were calculated for all volatile constituents using a homologous series of n-al kanes C8–C16. 2. 3. 4. Antioxidative assays in mustard oil Oxidative deterioration was monitored under modi? ed Shaal Oven test (Economou et al. , 1991). Leaf and bark essential oils and oleoresins along with synthetic antioxidants and major components were added individually to unre? ned mustard oil at levels of 0. 2% (v/v). The initial PV value of oil is 1. 7 meq of O2/kg. Oxidative deterioration was periodically assessed by measuring the antioxidant parameters such as peroxide (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), p-anisidine (p-An) and total carbonyl (TC) values. 2. 3. 5. PV and TBA values The rate of oil oxidation was monitored by the increase of peroxide values. About 3 g of each oil sample was weighed and subjected to iodimetric determination (AOCS, 1990). TBA values were evaluated according to the methods previously stated by some authors (Sidwell et al. , 1954) with small changes. To 10 g of oil sample, 0. 7% aq. thiobarbituric acid (20 mL) and benzene (25 mL) solution we re added. This mixture was shaken continuously for 2 h using mechanical shaker. After 2 h, supernatant was taken and placed in boiling water-bath for 1 h. After cooling, absorbance of supernatant was measured at 540 nm with Hitachi-U-2000 spectrophotometer. 2. 3. 6. p-Anisidine value The test was performed according to the methods (AOCS, 1998,) previously stated by earlier workers (Ottolenghi, 1959; Kikuzaki and Nakatani, 1993). In a 50 mL volumetric ? ask, 0. 6 g of oil sample was taken and volume was made using isoctane solution.From this solution, 5 mL was treated with 1 mL of 0. 25% of p-anisidine reagent and kept in dark for 10 min and absorbance was measured at 350 nm using a UV–VIS spectrophotometer. 2. 3. 7. Total carbonyl value Carbonyl value was evaluated according to the methods as reported earlier (Frankel, 1998). About 4 g of sample was taken in a 50 mL volumetric ? ask and the volume was made up using carbonyl free benzene. Out of this, 5 mL was pippeted out and mixed with 3 mL of 4. 3% trichloroacetic acid and 5 mL of 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (0. 05% in benzene) in 50 mL volumetric ? asks.The mixture was incubated at 60  °C for half an hour to convert free carbonyls into hydrazones. After cooling, 10 mL of KOH solution (4% in ethanol) was added and the volume was made with ethanol. After 10 min, absorbance was measured at 480 nm using UV–VIS spectrophotometer. Blank was prepared in the same manner substituting 5 mL of benzene instead of sample. A standard curve was drawn using valeraldehyde (50–250 lg) in 5 mL of benzene instead of sample. The total carbonyl was calculated with the help of the standard curve and expressed as mg of valeraldehyde per 100 g of sample. 2. 5. Antimicrobial activity 2. 5. . Antifungal investigations In order to determine the antifungal e? cacy of the volatile oil and its oleoresin, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ? avus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus terreus, Fusariu m moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium viridicatum were undertaken. These fungi were isolated from food materials such as onion, vegetable waste, wheat straw, fruits of Musa species, sweet potato, decaying vegetation and vegetable, respectively and were procured from Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC), Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India.The MTCC code No. of these strains are 2479, 1884, 1810, 3374, 1893, 2088, 2553 and 2007, respectively. Cultures of each of the fungi were maintained on Czapek (DOX) agar media with adjusting pH 6. 0–6. 5 and slants were stored at 4  °C. The antifungal activity of the volatile oil and oleoresin against fungi were undertaken using inverted petriplate (Ramdas et al. , 1998) and poison food techniques (Amvam Zolla et al. , 1998). In inverted petriplate method, the required dose (2, 4 and 6 lL) of undiluted sample were soaked on a small piece (diameter 12 mm) of Whatmann No. 1 ? ter pape r and it was kept on the lid of petriplate which is in inverted position whereas in poison food 2. 4. Complementary antioxidant assays 2. 4. 1. Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system Antioxidant activity was carried out using the method proposed by Osawa and Namaki (1983) with small changes. Samples (1 mL) in ethanol were mixed with 2. 5% linoleic acid in ethanol (4. 1 mL), 0. 05 M phosphate bu? er (pH = 7, 8 mL) and distilled water (3. 9 mL) and kept in screw cap containers under dark condition at 40  °C. This solution (0. 1 mL) was added to the solution of 9. 7 mL of 75% ethanol and 0. mL of 30% ammonium thiocyanate. After 3 min, 0. 1 mL of 0. 02 M ferrous chloride in 3. 5% hydrochloric acid was added to the reaction mixture, the absorbance of red color was measured at 500 nm in the spectrophotometer, for every two days. The control and standards were subjected to the same procedure except for the control, where there was no addition of sample and for the standard 1 mL of sample was replaced with 1 mg of BHA and BHT. G. Singh et al. / Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 technique, the required dose (2, 4 and 6 lL) of the undiluted sample were mixed with the 20 mL of culture medium.Each test was replicated for three times and fungi toxicity was measured after 6 days in terms of percent mycelial zone inhibition. 2. 5. 2. Antibacterial investigations Six pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus (430), Bacillus subtilis (1790), Staphylococcus aureus (3103) (gram-positive), Escherichia coli (1672), Salmonella typhi (733), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942) (gram-negative) were selected for present study. All the bacterial strains were procured from Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC), Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. They were sub cultured on nutrient agar broth (Hi-media) and stored at 4  °C.Active cultures for experiments were prepared by transferring one loopful of cells from stock cultures to ? ask of nutrient aga r broth, which were incubated without agitation for 24 h at 37  °C. In order to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oils and oleoresins, agar well di? usion method was followed. 0. 1 mL of 101 time diluted bacterial strain in ringers solution were ? ood inoculated on to the surface of well settled sterilized culture medium. The wells (10 mm diameter) were cut from agar, and 0. 2 mL of sample (2, 4 and 6 lL of essential oil or oleoresin diluted in 1 mL of DMSO) was delivered into them.For standard, 0. 2 mL of aqueous solution of ampicillin (1 mg mLA1) was used. After incubation for 24 h at 37  °C, all plates were examined for any zones of growth inhibition according to method developed by Davidson and Parish (1989). All the plates were replicated twice and the results were averaged. 2. 5. 3. Statistical analysis For the oil or oleoresin, three samples were prepared for each experiment. The data were presented as mean  ± standard deviation of three determinatio ns (data were not shown). The quantitative data of major components of oil and oleoresin were statistically examined by analysis of variance (Sokal, 1973) and signi? ant di? erences among several groups of data were examined by Ducan’s multiple range test. A probability value of p < 0. 05 was considered signi? cant. Table 1 Chemical composition of cinnamon leaf volatile oil and oleoresin Compound Volatile oil MS % a-Thujene a -Pinene b-Pinene Myrcene a-Phellandrene p-Mentha-1(7),8-diene p-Cymene 1,8-Cineole Terpinolene a-Terpineol a-Cubebene Eugenol b-Caryophyllene Aromadendrene a-Amorphene Germacrene-D Bicyclogermacrene d-Cadinene Spathulenol Sabinene c-Terpinene Terpinen-4-ol d-Elemene Viridi? orol Methoxy-eugenol Isospathulenol Neophytadiene Docosane Nonacosane Vitamin-E Total 0. 1 0. tr tr 1. 9 tr 0. 7 0. 7 tr tr tr 87. 3 1. 9 1. 1 tr 0. 6 3. 6 0. 4 0. 5 – – – – – – – – – – – 99. 4% a 1653 Oleore sin KI 931 941 980 993 1007 1011 1026 1033 1088 1191 1350 1358 1420 1441 1490 1490 1496 1527 1576 – – – – – – – – – – – MSa % – – – – 0. 3 – tr – – tr – 87. 2 1. 4 0. 8 0. 4 0. 2 1. 7 0. 6 1. 7 tr tr tr 1. 0 0. 3 0. 1 0. 3 0. 3 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 97. 1% KI – – – – 1007 – 1026 – – 1191 – 1358 1420 1441 1490 1490 1496 1527 1576 975 1064 1177 1340 1594 – – – – – – 3. Results and discussion 3. 1. Chemical analysis GC and GC–MS analysis of cinnamon leaf volatile oil showed the presence of 19 components accounting for 99. % of the total amount (Table 1). The major component was eugenol (87. 3%) followed by bicyclogermacrene (3. 6%), a-phellanderene (1. 9%), b-carryophyllene (1. 9%), aromadendrene (1. 1%), p-cymene (0. 7%) and 1,8-cineole (0. 7%). Moreover, it s oleoresin showed the presence of 25 components accounting for 97. 1% of the total amount (Table 1). The major components accounting were eugenol (87. 2%), spathulenol (1. 7%), bicyclogermacrene (1. 7%), b-caryophyllene (1. 4%) and d-elemene (1. 0%). The analysis of cinnamon bark volatile oil showed the presence of 13 components accounting for 100% of the total amount (Table 2). E)-cinnamaldehyde was found as the major component along with d-cadinene (0. 9%), a-copaene (0. 8%) and a-amorphene (0. 5%), whereas its bark oleoresin showed the presence of 17 components accounting for 92. 3% of the total amount (Table 2). The major components were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (49. 9%), coumarin (16. 6%), d-cadinene (7. 8%), a-copaene (4. 6%), (Z)-cinnamaldehyde (1. 5%), ortho-methoxy cinnamaldehyde (1. 5%) and b-bisabolene (1. 4%) along with several other compo- Percentages are the mean of three runs and were obtained from electronic integration measurements using selective mass detector tr < 0. 1 . a nents. Recently, Raina et al. (2001) reported eugenol (76. 6%), linalool (8. 5%) and pipertone (3. 31%) as major components from its leaf oil grown in little Andman whereas the steam distilled volatile oil of cinnamon fruit ? grown at Karnataka and Kerala consists (Simic et al. , 2004; Jayaprakash et al. , 1997) of hydrocarbons (32. 8% and 20. 8%) and oxygenated compounds (63. 7% and 73. 4%) and trans-cinnamyl acetate and b-caryophyllene were found to be major component. 3. 2. Antioxidative assays in mustard oil The changes of PV in mustard oil of all investigated samples are presented in Fig. 1.The rate of oxidative reactions in mustard oil with additives was almost similar to that of the blank sample. The stability of the mustard oil samples to the formation of peroxides can be ranked in the following descending order: Leaf oleoresin > BHT > PG % eugenol > Bark oleoresin % BHA > Leafoil > cinnamaldehyde > bark oil 1654 G. Singh et al. / Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1 650–1661 Table 2 Chemical composition of cinnamon bark volatile oil and extract Compound Volatile oil MS % a-Pinene Camphene Sabinene b-Pinene Limonene 1,8-Cineole Camphor Z-cinnamaldhyde E-cinnamaldhyde a-Copaene a-Amorphene -Cadinene Terpinen-4-ol b-Caryophyllene Coumarin a-Muurolene b-Bisabolene Cadina-1(2), 4-diene Ortho-methoxy cinnamadehyde Cubenol 1-Heptadecene 1-Nonadecene Tetracosane Octacosane Nonacosane Total a a Oleoresin KI 941 953 975 980 1031 1035 1144 1225 1279 1379 1490 1527 – – – – – – – – – – – – – MSa % – – – – – – – 1. 5 50. 0 4. 6 – 7. 8 0. 1 1. 0 16. 6 4. 4 1. 4 1. 8 1. 5 0. 5 0. 2 0. 4 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 92. 3% KI – – – – – – – 1225 1279 1379 – 1527 1177 1420 1436 1500 1506 1530 1532 – – – – – – tr tr tr tr tr tr tr tr 97. 7 0. 8 0. 5 0. 9 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 100% ays. The e? ects of volatile oils and oleoresins on malonaldehyde formation for mustard oil in terms of incubation time versus TBA value at 60  °C are shown in Fig. 2. The malondehyde formation of all the additives increases with storage time. The oil showed a moderate inhibition at 0. 02% concentration, and was comparable to BHA and PG but much lower than BHT. These results were well correlated with p-anisidine and total carbonyl values (Fig. 4). However, the sequence is slightly di? erent as compared with the one obtained during measurements of peroxide values.For instance, bark oleoresin had a little greater activity for preventing the formation of secondary oxidation products than primary ones. On contrary, volatile oils were slightly less e? ective in preventing the formation of secondary oxidation products than primary ones. From the above results, it should be said that the formation of the primary oxidation species, peroxides, were also quite similar with the secondary oxidation products, and the changes of both oxidation characteristics are in a good correlation. Hence, the inhibition activity of leaf and bark oleoresins were excellent among all the additives and there was a signi? ant di? erence between the blank and antioxidants at the P < 0. 05 level. 3. 3. Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system To evaluate the antioxidant potential of volatile oils and oleoresins of leaf and bark, their lipid inhibitory activities were compared with selected antioxidants and their major components by using ferric thiocyanate method of measuring the amounts of peroxides formed in emulsion during incubation. High absorbance is an indication of a high concentration of formed peroxides. The absorbance values of volatile oils and oleoresins of cinnamon along with synthetic antioxidants are shown in Fig. . The absorba nce Percentages are the mean of three runs and were obtained from electronic integration measurements using selective mass detector tr < 0. 01. Simultaneously with the measurements of peroxide value, the changes the secondary oxidation products such as malonaldehyde and 2-alkenals, which are measured by thiobarbituric (Fig. 2), p-anisidine (Fig. 3) and total carbonyl values (Fig. 4), were also determined after every 7 120 Control BHT C. L. Oil C. L. Oleoresin eugenol BHA PG C. B. Oil C. B. Oleoresin E-cinnamaldehyde 100 Peroxide value (meq/kg) 80 60 40 20 0 0 7 14 21 28Incubation time (days) Fig. 1. Inhibitory e? ect of volatile oil and oleoresin of cinnamon leaf and bark on the primary oxidation of mustard oil measured using peroxide value method. G. Singh et al. / Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 1655 6 5 Control BHT Leaf oil Leaf oleoresin Eugenol BHA PG Bark oil Bark oleoresin E-cinnamaldehyde TBA value (meq/g) 4 3 2 1 0 0 7 14 21 28 Incubation time (days) Fig. 2. Inhibitory e? ect of volatile oil and oleoresin of cinnamon leaf and bark on the malonaldehyde formation in mustard oil measured using TBA value method. 7 6 Control BHT C. L. Oil C. L.Oleoresin eugenol BHA PG C. B. Oil C. B. Oleoresin E-cinnamaldehyde p-anisidine value 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 7 14 21 28 Incubation time (days) Fig. 3. Inhibitory e? ect of volatile oil and oleoresin of cinnamon leaf and bark on the formation of 2-alkenals in mustard oil measured using p-anisidine method. 16 14 Carbonyl value (mg) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 7 Control BHT C. L. Oil C. L. Oleoresin Eugenol BHA PG C. B. Oil C. B. Oleoresin E-cinnamaldehyde 14 21 28 Incubation time (days) Fig. 4. Inhibitory e? ect volatile oil and oleoresin of cinnamon leaf and bark on the total carbonyls present in mustard oil. 1656 G. Singh et al. Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 1. 9 1. 7 Absorbance at 500 nm 1. 5 1. 3 1. 1 0. 9 0. 7 0. 5 0 Control BHT Leaf oleoresin Bark oleoresin Cinnamaldehyde BHA Leaf oil bark oil eugenol 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Incubation time (h) Fig. 5. Inhibitory e? ect of volatile oil and oleoresin of cinnamon leaf and bark on the primary oxidation of linoleic acid system measured using ferric thiocyanate method. of linoleic acid emulsion without additive increased rapidly, and there was a signi? cant di? erence between blank and antioxidants at the P < 0. 05 level. As can be seen in this ? , bark oleoresin was most e? ective among all the additives followed by leaf oleoresin. However, there are no signi? cant (p < 0. 05%) di? erences between antioxidative activities of oleoresins, oils, BHA, BHT and PG. 3. 4. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging e? ects Table 6 shows the DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of leaf and bark volatile oils and oleoresins with various concentrations. As positive control, BHA and BHT were also examined. Bark oleoresin showed the best result through all concentrations for DPPH assay. The volatile oils have shown almos t equal and moderate radical scavenging activity.At a concentration of 5 lL, signi? cant di? erences in DPPH scavenging activities was observed between BHA (78. 4%), BHT (81. 2%) and oleoresins of both leaf (51. 3%) and bark (75. 6%). However, as concentration increased, the di? erences in scavenging activities between BHA, BHT and oleoresins become less signi? cant. For hydroxyl radical scavenging test AOH radicals were generated by reaction of ferric-EDTA together with H2O2 and ascorbic acid to attack the substrate deoxyribose. The resulting products of the radical attack form a pink chromogen when heated with TBA in acid solution (Ohkawa et al. , 1979; Shimada et al. 1992). When the oils or oleoresins were incubated with this reaction mixture they were able to interfere with free radical reaction and could prevent damage to the sugar. The results are shown in Table 6. At 5 lL, scavenging e? ects on hydroxyl radicals were 31. 2%, 51. 2%, 43. 6% and 57. 6% for leaf and bark volatil e oils and oleoresin. However, at 25 lL BHA and BHT exhibited scavenging activities of 84. 9% and 83. 2%, respectively. There was a little change in the order of DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of leaf oleoresin (86. 1%), bark volatile oil (79. 6%) and bark oleoresin (78. 6%).A close to linear correlation between radical scavenging activity and concentration of polyphenolic compounds in various vegetable and fruits have been reported (Pyo et al. , 2004; Robards et al. , 1999). These reports indicated that the radical scavenging activity of oleoresins might be mostly a? ected by position of the phenolic hydroxyl group which is present in eugenol. Yepez et al. (2001) used eugenol as standard which removed 95% of the initial DPPH free radical. 3. 5. Chelating e? ect and reducing power Chelating e? ects of the leaf and bark oleoresins on ferrous ions increased from 20. 5% at 5 lL to 24. % at 10 lL and maintained a plateau of 28. 2–35. 5% at 15– 25lL (Fig. 6). The bark oleoresin showed a better chelating e? ect than those leaf oleoresin and both volatile oils. In addition, chelating e? ects of oleoresins were relatively parallel and increased from 20. 5–23. 6% at 5 lL to 38. 5– 42% at 25 lL. However, at 5 lL, the chelating ability of EDTA was 90. 4%. Apparently, the cinnamon leaf and bark oleoresins could chelate ferrous ions but were not as e? ective chelators as EDTA. Reducing powers of leaf and bark oleoresins of cinnamon were excellent and were in the range 56. 0–58. 4, comparable with that of BHA (63. ) and BHT (65. 2) at 5 lL (Fig. 7). However, at 25 lL, the reducing power of the leaf and bark oleoresins, BHA and BHT were comparable (78. 5–87. 9). The reducing powers of the oleoresins might be due to the hydrogen donating abilities (Shimada et al. , 1992). 3. 6. Antimicrobial studies The results of volatile oils and oleoresins of cinnamon leaf and bark by inverted petriplate and poison food tech- G. Sing h et al. / Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 1657 100 90 Chelating effect (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 EDTA Leaf oleoresin Bark oleoresin E-Cinnamaldehyde Leaf oil Bark oil Eugenol 10 15 20 25 30 Concentration ( L) Fig. 6. Chelating e? ect of volatile oil and oleoresin of cinnamon leaf and bark along with synthetic antioxidants. 100 Reducing power (%) 80 BHA Leaf oil Bark oil Eugenol BHT Leaf oleoresin Bark oleoresin Cinnamaldehyde 60 40 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Concentration ( L) Fig. 7. Reducing power of volatile oil and oleoresin of cinnamon leaf and bark along with synthetic antioxidants. niques are reported in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. Using inverted petriplate method (Table 3), the leaf volatile oil was found to be 100% antifungal against all the tested fungi except A. chraceus and A. terreus at 6 lL. It was interesting to note that complete inhibition against A. ?avus was obtained only at 2 lL. However, leaf oleoresin has shown complete mycelial zone inhibition only for P. citrinum. More than 75% activity was obtained for P. veridicatum, F. moniliforme and A. ?avus. Bark volatile oil has shown complete inhibition against the fungi such as F. gramenearum, F. moniliforme, P. citrinum, P. viridicatum and A. terreus at 6 lL. Using poison food technique (Table 4), leaf volatile has caused complete inhibition against all the tested fungi except P. itrinum whereas oleoresin has caused complete inhibition only against P. citrinum. Bark volatile oil has shown complete inhibition against almost all the tested fungi except for A. ?avus, A. ochraceus whereas its oleoresin has caused complete inhibition for A. ?avus and A. ochraceus along with A. niger, A. terreus, P. citrinum and P. viridicatum at 6 lL. Using agar well di? usion method (Table 5), leaf volatile oil has shown better results in comparison with oleoresin and commercial bactericide, i. e. , ampicillin. Complete mycelial zone inhibition was obtained using leaf volatile oil again st P. eruginosa and B. cereus. However, it has moderate inhibitory e? ect on B. subtilis and S. aureus whereas its oleoresin has shown almost 100% activities against S. typhi and B. cereus. Bark volatile oil has been found to be better than bark oleoresin as it has caused more than 50% inhibition against all the tested fungi. There are several reports (Singh et al. , 1995; Hili et al. , 1997) stating that C. zeylanicum Blume exhibit antimicrobial activity. Their results demonstrate that the leaf oil completely inhibit the growth of E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at the 1658 G. Singh et al. Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 Table 3 Antifungal activity of volatile oils and oleoresins of cinnamon leaf and bark by inverted petriplate method Test Dose (lL) Percent mycelial inhibition zonea AN Leaf volatile oil 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 91. 5 100 100 25. 0 50. 0 58. 7 85. 3 93. 1 100 6. 3 38. 7 87. 2 62. 5 100 100 6. 3 35. 1 78. 3 AF 100 100 100 45. 6 76. 3 89. 3 100 100 100 6. 3 8. 8 13. 8 81. 2 100 100 65. 3 93. 2 100 AO 18. 7 56. 3 87. 5 46. 3 56. 3 68. 7 15. 6 52. 8 85. 3 12. 5 25. 0 37. 5 54. 3 78. 7 100 12. 5 25. 0 30. 8 FG 50. 0 52. 5 100 37. 5 50. 56. 3 36. 3 45. 8 95. 2 87. 5 87. 5 100 25. 0 50. 0 58. 7 75. 0 87. 5 100 FM 50. 0 52. 5 100 57. 5 80. 0 92. 5 31. 2 43. 2 83. 6 75. 0 87. 5 100 58. 6 79. 5 83. 3 58. 7 75. 3 83. 8 PC 37. 5 56. 3 100 67. 8 93. 3 100 25. 5 45. 8 86. 3 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 PV 37. 5 56. 3 100 38. 9 65. 5 87. 5 28. 5 47. 3 93. 7 100 100 100 76. 5 87. 5 100 85. 5 91. 5 100 AT 18. 7 36. 5 75. 0 46. 3 56. 3 68. 7 41. 3 53. 2 69. 1 37. 5 56. 3 100 87. 5 94. 1 100 56. 3 85. 6 100 Leaf oleoresin Eugenol Bark volatile oil Bark oleoresin E-cinnamaldehyde AN = Aspergillus niger; AF = Aspergillus ? vus; AO = Aspergillus ochraceus; FG = Fusarium graminearum; FM = Fusarium moniliforme; PC = Penicillium citrinum; PV = Penicillium viridicatum; AT = Aspergillus terreus. a Average of three replicate s. Table 4 Antifungal activity of volatile oils and oleoresins of cinnamon leaf and bark by food poisoned method Test Dose (ppm)a Percent mycelial inhibition zonea AN Leaf volatile oil 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 1000 2000 3000 100 100 100 62. 5 77. 5 87. 5 100 100 100 73. 5 100 100 48. 9 65. 3 83. 6 52. 3 68. 7 72. 3 78. 2 82. 2 96. 3 AF 31. 3 87. 5 100 18. 8 50. 0 100 15. 6 63. 2 95. 6 (–) 51. 3 87. 5 88. 7 91. 3 100 52. 87. 6 91. 2 85. 3 91. 2 96. 2 AO 50. 0 100 100 35. 0 82. 5 97. 5 45. 6 95. 6 100 75. 0 81. 2 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 84. 2 91. 2 98. 4 FG 75. 0 100 100 62. 5 77. 5 87. 5 63. 5 82. 1 93. 8 50. 0 75. 0 87. 5 65. 3 83. 2 100 47. 2 67. 8 85. 3 90. 2 96. 3 94. 5 FM 100 100 100 38. 7 46. 3 78. 7 45. 6 53. 6 78. 3 75. 0 83. 2 100 48. 7 56. 3 78. 7 63. 2 65. 8 87. 1 97. 2 100 100 PC 50. 0 75. 0 87. 5 35. 0 62. 5 97. 5 48. 6 73. 1 82. 6 43. 7 51. 3 65. 0 100 100 100 85. 2 89. 7 91. 2 100 100 100 PV 87. 5 100 100 50. 0 65. 5 70. 0 73. 2 85. 6 93. 6 50. 0 75. 0 87. 5 60. 0 85. 3 100 55. 3 63. 1 91. 2 100 100 100 AT 18. 7 50. 0 56. (–) 50. 0 100 15. 5 50. 0 75. 2 32. 5 45. 0 76. 3 35. 0 76. 2 83. 7 42. 3 45. 6 89. 3 98. 5 100 100 Leaf oleoresin Eugenol Bark volatile oil Bark oleoresin E-cinnamaldehyde Carbendazimb AN = Aspergillus niger; AF = Aspergillus ? avus; AO = Aspergillus ochraceus; FG = Fusarium graminearum; FM = Fusarium moniliforme; PC = Penicillium citrinum; PV = Penicillium viridicatum; AT = Aspergillus terreus. a Average of three replicates. b Aqueous solution was used. G. Singh et al. / Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 Table 5 Antibacterial activity of volatile oils and oleoresins of cinnamon leaf and bark by agar well di? sion method Test Concentration (ppm) Inhibition zone (mm)a Gram (+) bacteria Bs Leaf volatile oil 1000 2000 3000 1000 2000 3000 1000 2000 3000 1000 2000 3000 1000 2000 3000 1000 2000 3000 1000 2000 3000 17. 1  ± 0. 4 20. 0  ± 0. 6 32. 6  ± 1. 2 14. 6  ± 1. 2 19. 0  ± 0. 2 25. 4  ± 0. 8 14. 3  ± 0. 6 17. 0  ± 0. 3 29. 6  ± 1. 2 14. 2  ± 0. 5 18. 3  ± 0. 3 26. 7  ± 0. 7 16. 2  ± 1. 3 20. 2  ± 1. 1 25. 3  ± 0. 3 12. 3  ± 0. 1 17. 3  ± 0. 5 23. 7  ± 0. 6 32. 5  ± 1. 2 34. 3  ± 0. 3 41. 2  ± 0. 2 Sa 26. 1  ± 1. 5 34. 9  ± 1. 3 48. 7  ± 0. 5 27. 1  ± 0. 1 38. 9  ± 0. 2 49. 3  ± 2. 2 23. 1  ± 1. 1 26. 9  ± 1. 3 38. 7  ± 0. 3 27. 0  ± 0. 9 44. 6  ± 0. 56. 7  ± 0. 1 23. 1  ± 0. 4 28. 7  ± 0. 2 33. 6  ± 0. 3 23. 0  ± 0. 7 41. 6  ± 0. 8 53. 7  ± 0. 1 29. 5  ± 0. 6 32. 6  ± 1. 6 37. 5  ± 0. 2 Bc 43. 3  ± 1. 7 58. 0  ± 0. 6 + 64. 5  ± 0. 6 80. 4  ± 1. 1 + 33. 3  ± 1. 5 56. 0  ± 0. 8 72. 3  ± 0. 2 41. 3  ± 1. 7 52. 6  ± 1. 2 56. 3  ± 0. 5 38. 6  ± 0. 2 41. 3  ± 0. 4 45. 6  ± 0. 7 31. 3  ± 1. 2 48. 6  ± 0. 2 52. 3  ± 0. 3 31. 4  ± 0. 2 34. 6  ± 0. 1 38. 2  ± 0. 3 Gram (A) bacteria Ec 13. 0  ± 0. 2 18. 2  ± 1. 1 25. 8  ± 0. 5 11. 4  ± 0. 6 13. 1  ± 0. 7 18. 5  ± 1. 1 11. 3  ± 0. 1 17. 2  ± 1. 6 21. 8  ± 0. 3 28. 1  ± 0. 2 33. 2  ± 1. 3 35. 1  ± 0. 3 33. 4  ± 0. 5 35. 4  ± 0. 3 37. 1  ± 0. 3 26. 1  ± 0. 5 33.  ± 1. 8 34. 1  ± 0. 2 33. 6  ± 0. 8 37. 8  ± 1. 4 39. 5  ± 0. 6 St 12. 5  ± 0. 8 14. 6  ± 1. 1 17. 9  ± 0. 2 53. 6  ± 1. 3 73. 8  ± 0. 5 78. 1  ± 0. 8 12. 5  ± 0. 8 14. 6  ± 1. 1 17. 9  ± 0. 2 20. 6  ± 1. 8 32. 7  ± 2. 0 41. 3  ± 0. 3 17. 2  ± 0. 1 18. 6  ± 0. 7 19. 3  ± 0. 5 18. 6  ± 1. 4 31. 7  ± 1. 0 40. 3  ± 0. 3 21. 9  ± 0. 5 25. 6  ± 0. 7 28. 9  ± 1. 3 Pa 1659 25. 7  ± 0. 6 + + 20. 5  ± 0. 1 21. 4  ± 0. 8 25. 8  ± 0. 1 26. 7  ± 0. 5 + + 50. 2  ± 1. 2 56. 5  ± 0. 8 60. 2  ± 0. 3 40. 6  ± 0. 4 45. 3  ± 0. 8 56. 2  ± 0. 7 30. 2  ± 1. 1 48. 5  ± 0. 6 59. 2  ± 0. 1 24. 3  ± 0. 4 26. 3  ± 1. 5 27. 3  ± 1. 1 Leaf oleoresin Eugenol Bark volatile oilBark oleoresin E-cinnamaldehyde Ampicillin Bs = Bacillus s ubtilis; Sa = Staphylococcus aureus; Bc = Bacillus cereus ; Ec = Escherichia coli ; St = Salmonella typhi; Pa = Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (+) indicates complete inhibition. a Average of three replicates. level of 500 lg mLA1. Another report (Smith-Palmer et al. , 1998) found the MICs of C. zeylanicum against E. coli and S. aureus were 0. 05% and 0. 04%, respectively. To con? rm the relationship of the constituents in cinnamon leaf and bark and antimicrobial activity, the major components were tested for antimicrobial activity. The results are shown in Tables 3–5.Among both constituents, E-cinnamaldehyde possessed better activity and these ? ndings are quite similar with the results of Chang et al. (2001). However, eugenol, in spite of being phenolic compound, failed to inhibit the fungal growth by inverted petriplate method but when it was added directly to the growth media in higher concentrations, it appeared to inhibit completely the microbial growth. Nevertheless, it is wor th noting that essential oils and oleoresins are very heterogeneous mixtures of a single substances, biological actions are primarily due to these components in a very complicated concert of synergistic or antagonistic e? cts. Table 6 Comparison of scavenging e? ects of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils and oleoresins against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals Sample Radical scavenging activitya (%) DPPH radical 5 lL Leaf oil Leaf oleoresin Eugenol Bark oil Bark oleoresin E-cinnamaldehyde BHA BHT a Hydroxyl radical 15 lL 69. 9 74. 1 65. 2 76. 2 89. 3 72. 3 92. 1 89. 2 20 lL 72. 1 76. 7 71. 3 82. 1 91. 2 75. 1 94. 7 91. 7 25 lL 73. 9 91. 2 92. 9 83. 6 95. 3 78. 3 96. 4 94. 9 5 lL 31. 2 43. 6 39. 4 51. 2 57. 6 49. 8 71. 3 66. 2 10 lL 55. 7 57. 1 45. 1 57. 6 62. 3 53. 6 75. 1 72. 1 15 lL 63. 5 70. 4 54. 3 73. 1 68. 9 57. 1 78. 75. 3 20 lL 68. 1 73. 6 61. 5 76. 9 71. 2 65. 2 81. 7 77. 5 25 lL 72. 2 86. 1 68. 2 79. 6 78. 6 68. 3 84. 9 83. 2 10 lL 58. 7 58. 9 56. 8 73. 5 87. 5 68. 1 89. 3 85. 1 45. 2 51. 3 41. 3 71. 1 75. 6 65. 3 78. 4 81. 2 Average of three replicates. 1660 G. Singh et al. / Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 Chang, S. T. , Chen, P. F. , Chang, S. C. , 2001. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from Cinnamon osmophloeum. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 77, 123–127. Cuvelier, M. E. , Berset, H. , Richard, H. , 1994. Antioxidant constituents in sage (Salvia o? cinalis).Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 42, 665–669. Davidson, P. M. , Parish, M. E. , 1989. Methods for testing the e? cacy of food antimicrobials. Food Technology 43, 148–155. Djarmati, Z. , Jankov, R. M. , Schwirtlich, E. , Djulinac, B. , Djoedjevic, A. , 1991. High antioxidant activity of oleoresins obtained from sage by supercritical CO2 extraction. Journal of American Oil Chemical Society 68, 731–734. Economou, K. D. , Oreopoulou, V. , Thomopoulos, 1991. Antioxidant activity of some plant oleoresins of th e family Labiatae. Journal of American Oil Chemical Society 68, 109–115. Frankel, E. N. 1998. Lipid Oxidation. The Oily Press, Dundee, UK, 301 pp. Gordon, M. H. , Weng, C. X. , 1992. 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K. , Rao, L. J. , Sakariah, K. K. , 1997. Chemical composition of the volatiles from oil from the fruits of Cinnamon zeylinicum Blume.Flavour Fragrance Journal 12, 331. Kahl, R. , Kappus, H. , 1993. Toxicity of synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT in comparison with natural antioxidants vitamin E. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und –Forschung 196, 329–338. Kikuzaki, H. , Nakatani, N. , 1993. Antioxidant e? ect of some ginger constituents. Journal of Food Science 58, 1407–1410. Madsen, H. L. , Andersen, L. , Christiansen, L. , Brockho? , P. , Bertelsen, G. , 1996. Antioxidative activity of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. ) and rosemary (Rosmarinus o? cinalis L. ) in minced cooked pork meat. Z. Lebensm.Unters Forsch. 203, 333–338 . Massda, Y. , 1976. Analysis of essential oils by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. Halsted/Wiley, New York. Ohkawa, H. , Ohishi, N. , Yagi, K. , 1979. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. 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(Eds. ), Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their E? ects on Health.American Chemical Society, New York, pp. 54–72. 4. Conclusion The present study provided the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the volatile oils and oleoresins of cinnamon leaf and bark. The oleoresins have shown better e? ect on primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil. The radical scavenging activity and other complementary assays are also in good correlation. Moreover, the potency of the constituents such as eugenol and cinnamaldehyde could provide a chemical basis for some of the health bene? ts claimed for cinnamon and warrant further studies to assess their potential as e? ctive natural remedies. Acknowledgements We are thankful to Head, Chemistry Department, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur for provi ding laboratory facilities. Prof. K. D. S. Yadav of our department is also thanked for providing spectral facility. Life Sciences Research Board, DRDO, New Delhi and CONICET and Consejo de Investigaciones de la Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (CIUNT) Argentina are also thanked for ? nancial assistance. References Adams, R. P. , 2001. Identi? cation of Essential Oils Compounds by Gas Chromatography/Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, IL, USA.Amvam Zolla, P. H. , Biyiti, L. , Tchoumbougnang, F. , Menut, C. , Lamaty, G. , Bouchet, P. , 1998. Aromatic plant of tropical Central Africa. Part XXXIII, Chemical composition and antifungal activity of thirteen essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 13, 107–114. AOCS. 1990. O? cial methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists Society Method cd-83 and method cd-1890, fourth ed. , American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign. AOCS. 1998. O? cial m ethods: peroxide value. In: O? cial Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist’s Society, ? fth ed. AOCS Press: Illinois, USA. cd 8-53. AOCS o? cial Methods: p-anisidine value, 1998. In: O? cial Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist’s Society, ? fth ed. , AOCS Press: Illinois, cd 18-90. Aruoma, O. I. , Spencer, J. P. E. , Rossi, R. , Aeschbach, R. , Khan, A. , Mahmood, N. , Munoz, A. , Murcia, A. , Butler, J. , Halliwell, B. , 1996. An evaluation of the antioxidant and antiviral action of oleoresins of rosemary and provencal herbs. Journal of Food and Chemical Toxicology 34, 449–456. Bandoniene, D. , Venskutonis, P. R. , Gruzdiene, D. , Murkovic, M. , 2002. Antioxidant activity of Sage (Salvia o? inalis L. ), Savory (Satureja hortensis L. ) and Borage (Borago o? cinalis L. ) oleoresins in rapeseed oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 104, 286– 292. Brand-Williams, W. , Cuvelier, M. E. , Berset, C . , 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittl-Wissenschaft und Technologic 28, 25–30. Caragay, A. B. , 1992. 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Phenolic compounds and their role in oxidative process in fruits. Food Chemistry 66, 401–436. Shimada, K. , Fujikawa, K. , Yahara, K. , Nakamura, T. , 1992. Antioxidative properties of xanthan on autooxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 40, 945–948. Sidwell, C. G. , Salwin, H. , Benca, M. , Mitchell, J. H. , 1954. The use of thiobarbituric acid as a measure of fat oxidation. Journal of American Oil Chemical Society 31, 603. ? ? ? ? ? ? Simic, A. Sokovic, M. D. , Ristic, M. , Grujic -Jovanovic, S. , Vukojevic, J. , Marin, P. D. , 2004. The chemical composition of some Lauraceae 1661 essential oils and their antifungal activities. Phytotherapy Research 18, 713–717. Singh, N. B. , Srivastava, M. , Singh, A. B. , Srivastava, A. K. , 1995. Cinnamon bark oil, a pote nt fungi toxic against fungi causing respiratory tract mycoses. Allergy 50, 995–999. Smith-Palmer, A. , Stewart, J. , Fyfe, L. , 1998. Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against ? ve important food-borne pathogens. Letters in Applied Microbiology 26, 118–122. Sokal, R. R. 1973. Introduction to Biostatistics. WH Freeman and company, San Francisco, pp. 164–185. Takacsova, M. , Pribela, A. , Faktorova, M. , 1995. Study of the antioxidative e? ects of thyme, sage, juniper and oregano. Nahrung/Food 39, 241–243. Wong, J. W. , Hashimoto, K. , Shibamoto, T. , 1995. Antioxidant activities of rosemary and sage oleoresins and vitamin E in a model meat system. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 45, 2707– 2712. Yepez, B. , Espinosa, M. , Lopez, S. , Bolanos, G. , 2001. Producing antioxidant fractions from herbaceous matrices by supercritical ? uid extraction. Fluid Phase Equilibria 4887, 1–6.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Environmental Racism: Take Out the Race Essay

The best way to avoid environmental racism is to avoid the subject of race at all costs. Race should never be the subject of any discussion about vital decisions regarding humanity, because when race becomes a focal point, then the discussion automatically becomes racist. The best way to avoid racism in general, including environmental racism, is to keep race out of important debates and choices, including environmental, social, economic, and political ones. When politicians plan for the development of a city, neighborhood, or industry, which has an environmental impact, the best thing politicians can do is to either allow businesses to make their own economic judgments about how, where, and when to build, or to simply use sound economic judgment themselves. If one looks to business and urban planning or environmental development and protection, one must look to costs and benefits. If the costs are low and benefits are high to a city or region in regard to incoming business or environmental changes, then the politicians should make the decision to act in favor of good business and environmental practices. In my opinion, race has no place in the discussion. Sound economics should be considered, including sound planning and social and environmental benefits, but race is never a smart card to be played. Why consider race? Considering it only makes racism more of a truth and reality. Environmental justice is important, social justice is important, and economic justice is important. All of these are linked together, and, in all of these, the color of a person’s skin is an outdated and silly point of consideration. Best practices in government, in business, in ecology, are fundamentally tied to one another, and bringing differing races into the argument is only prejudiced and unreasonable. Protecting all of united humanity and humanity’s surrounding ecology should always be a consideration, but divisive race should never be. It proves fruitless. References (Client’s uploaded article information. No author, date, title, or publisher provided. )

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Biopsychosocial Models for Schizophrenia

This paper will explore one of the most severe mental disorders, schizophrenia, with the goal of providing an actualized understanding of this disorder, including its etiology, course, epidemiology, diagnostic and treatment. Schizophrenia is characterized by an unadaptive pattern of general though and emotions, including delusions, auditory hallucinations, paranoia, disorganized thinking and disorganized speech. These symptoms cause a significant impairment in personal and social life.There are a wide range of symptoms that can be present in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, for which some researchers have questioned the validity of the concept of schizophrenia as a single disorder (Baier, 2010). Despite of the fact that the symptoms of schizophrenia continue to be considered as representing a unitary disorder, diagnostic manuals do classify schizophrenia into different subtypes: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated and residual. Diagnosis is usually made on cr iteria established by the DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10.This criteria make use of self-reported experiences and clinical judgments of mental health professionals. The etiology of schizophrenia, while not completely understood, is thought to be complex, as multiple factors seem to contribute to the development and the course of the disorder. While psychology-including abnormal psychology-has experience a significant increase of empirical knowledge in the last few decades, no other area of psychology research has developed as much as psychobiology (Baier, 2010).The technology available today allows researchers to scan brains-both topographical and functional; hence, ‘’schizophrenic brains’’ have been studied in order to seek out for structural or functional differences in contrast to ‘’normal brains’. Scientists have found several differences of brain structures in 40 to 50% of cases, as well as in brain chemistry during psychotic states (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009). Brain imaging technologies-such as PET and fMRI-showed functional differences in frontal lobes, temporal lobes and the hippocampus.Reduction in brain volume has also been observed in many cases, usually in the frontal cortex and the temporal lobes (Baier, 2010). Since neuronal circuits are altered, some scientists have proposed that schizophrenia is actually a manifestation of a constellation of neurodevelopmental disorders (Baier, 2010). The neurotransmitter which seems to play the most important role in the development in the manifestation of schizophrenia is dopamine, in the mesolimbic pathway (Baier, 2010).The dopamine hypothesis proposes that the excessive activation of D2 receptors cause the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009). The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia is supported by data which proves the effectiveness of antipsychotics that block D2 receptors, but also on PET and SPET imaging. Nevertheless, as new medication with a different mechanism of action seem to have similar effects (Baier, 2010), the dopamine hypothesis seems to be reductionist. Glutamate also seems to play a role in schizophrenia, as schizophrenic individuals tend to show a reduced function of the NMDA glutamate receptor.Reduced function of glutamate is linked to lower performance on taks that require the frontal lobe and the hippocampus. Genetic data suggests that schizophrenia is highly heritable; apparently genetic vulnerability in interaction with certain environmental factors are a common cause of the disorder. Twin studies’ results estimate an 80% of heritability of the disorders. Concordance rates between twins are around 50% for monozygotic twins and around 17% for dizygotic twins (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009).On the other hand, molecular genetic studies attempt to identify specific genes which may contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. Until now, allelic variation of two genes show a stronger correlation with schizo phrenia: dysbindin (DTNBP2) and neuregulin (NRG1) (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009). Several environmental factors can contribute to the development and course of schizophrenia. Prenatal factors, such as obstetric complications, maternal malnutrition, maternal stress or even been born in winter or spring or are common risk factors for schizophrenia,though they do not represent factors of high-risk (Baier, 2010). Less-common factors for schizophrenia are increased paternal age and gluten intolerance. Studies with small samples have identified certain psychosocial factors that are likely to be risk factors for schizophrenia: living in urban areas, poor family environment, low socio-economic level, disrupt school behavior, low social competence and immaturity (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009).Schizophrenia affects about 0. 7% of world population. It is slightly more common in males (1.4 times) and the usually ages of onset are 20-28 years for men and 26-32 years for women. Different countries have s lightly different rates of schizophrenia, which reflect the importance of environmental effects in the development of the disorder (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009).Schizophrenia is a societal concern, as it cause considerable costs. Life expectancy is 15 years lower in schizophrenic individuals, in great part due to the comorbidities of the disorder, such as depression and substance abuse. Three-fourth of schizophrenics have disability with relapses (Baier, 2010).Most people with schizophrenia have an independent life, though sometimes they make use of community support. There is a high suicide rate in schizophrenic population, around 4. 9%, which shouldn’t come as a surprise considering that many schizophrenic also suffer from different forms of clinical depression (Baier, 2010). Modern treatment of schizophrenia corresponds to the bio-psycho-social paradigm. About all schizophrenics receive antipsychotics, many times in combination with psychological and social intervention.Antip sychotics are efficient at reducing positive symptoms, but fail to do the same with negative symptoms and with cognitive functions. There is evidence that a continue use of antipsychotics prevents relapse, but not longer than 2-3 years.Antipsychotics are classified into typical and atypical, and little evidence suggest that any of them is better than the other (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009). Typical antipsychotics tend to provoke a higher rate of extrapyramidal side effects, while atypical antipsychotics are associated with weight gain, metabolic syndrome and diabetes (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009).Psychosocial intervention for those with schizophrenia include family therapy, cognitive remediation, cognitive-behavioral therapy, assertive community treatment, skills training, supported employment, token economic intervention and interventions for weight management or substance abuse. Currently new medication and psychotherapies for treating schizophrenia are been investigated. Minocyclineâ⠂¬â„¢s effects in schizophrenia, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, is currently under study, giving its great penetration into the central nervous system (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009).On the other hand, nidotherapy is been applied by some clinicians; this therapy aims at changing the environment of schizophrenic individuals, in order to improve their capacity to adapt (Kneisl & Trigoboff, 2009).It is to be seen whether this new treatments will prove effective or not. As it has been showed throughout this paper, schizophrenia is a complex disorder, and it cannot be explained or treated from a reductionist perspective. Hence, most researchers and clinicians adopt a bio-psycho-social perspective, which reflects in theories of schizophrenia as well as in its management.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Infant Death in Developing Countries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Infant Death in Developing Countries - Essay Example People therefore, have the mandate of donating any amount of assistance which would later be transferred to areas of need by these non-governmental organizations (Semba, 2008, p 88). Connection of the world to become a global village has made it possible for people to interact with each other and help each other. Each person has a mandate of ensuring that all people either in developing or developed countries enjoy their stay in the world. This is through giving out the sharing the little that one has in order to save the life of another one. The people are connected by one spirit of being humans (Semba 2008, p.90). It is therefore, responsibility of each person to ensure that the no one is starving when one has the ability to help. When each person takes the mandate of helping the starving children, it would be possible to eradicate hunger in earth making it possible for each person to enjoy life. In conclusion, it is the mandate of each person to ensure that starving images of children in developing countries are eliminated completely. This is through sharing the little that a person have with the rest of the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Explain the concepts listed below. Use your own words to explain, but Essay

Explain the concepts listed below. Use your own words to explain, but cite scholarly sources to support your statements - Essay Example Cultural competence enables patients and doctors to discuss the health concerns in a manner that is respectful and patient leading to positive health outcomes. Culture influences patients behavior and attitude to an illness, its causes, treatment and ultimately healing. Examples are in terminally ill patients e.g. cancer or diabetes. Depending on a patient’s culture, they may take it as a curse or punishment from God, witchcraft or a death sentence. A healthcare provider must therefore be aware of all the negative perceptions of the patient toward the illness and based on this, they are able to break the news to the patient. It will also aid the provider in knowing how to inform the patient about the disease until they understand. This will aid the patient in accepting treatment and also give a positive attitude towards management of the illness. Health belief can be discussed using the health belief model. It was developed by Irwin M. Rosenstock in 1966 to study the uptake of health services by patients. The original model consisted of four concepts: Perceived susceptibility (risk of getting a condition), perceived severity (seriousness of the condition, and its potential consequences), perceived barriers (adoption of the treatment and its side effects), perceived benefits (the positive consequences of adopting the treatment). Health beliefs are affected by an individual’s perception, social interactions and the consequences (Dean and Fenton, 2010). A case study would be the disease Diabetes. Many individuals believe that they can get diabetes as a result of genetic predisposal, unhealthy lifestyle or old age. There is belief that the consequences of diabetes are grave and should be avoided. There is belief that recommended eating healthy, proper exercise and regular check-ups to prevent diabetes and aid in early detection. People also identify their personal barriers

Organizational development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Organizational development - Essay Example They are applied to understand the aforementioned elements (Armstrong, 2009). After using such strategic concepts, the following factors and their effects on Aldi are being discussed. Competitor Power Competitors may look to poach the employees of Aldi through head hunting. This is a very common threat faced by most of the organisations. You invest so much of money to train and develop an employee and suddenly he or she may be poached by one of your competitors leaving an organisational gap. In this case, the competitor might be offering more attractive compensation to the employees, therefore, making the employees to leave, especially if the company lacks enough finances to upgrade its employees’ compensation (Bamberger & Meshoulam, 2000). Economic Uncertainty Economic uncertainty may lead Aldi to freeze their recruitment temporarily or even release some of the existing employees, or it may lead them to cut short on some of the employee benefits leading to a state of organisa tional unrest. When this happens, the trained and skilled employees will lose their jobs in Aldi, leaving Aldi with few employees, therefore, a shortage of skills that previously were present occurs. This will be felt in the workload of the company, which will be demanding for the employees left behind to handle (Torrington, Hall & Taylor, 2011). However, this will be beyond the control of Aldi. Talent Shortage At some point of time the Aldi may come across a phase when demand is greater than supply, i.e. there is need for quality manpower but there is a lack of adequate supply. Talent shortage may be for senior executive position or for new comers (Bamberger & Meshoulam, 2000). This can become challenging to the organization, since more skills and talent will be required to address new demands in the market. This might lead to poor performance of the company. Industry-centric Some organizations are more affected by employee turnover than others. This is something they cannot contro l because of their nature and specialization. These kinds of organizations are those that deal with tourism, healthcare, food, and retail industries. Aldi, being a retail company therefore, puts it in a situation whereby most of its employees could leave. Most retail companies do not require employees who are highly skilled, like other professional careers. Therefore, this is Aldi’s nature, which is beyond the organization’s control. A good number of employees might leave Aldi, since there are many other retail companies, where they could get opportunities too. Additionally, employees working in jobs that require less or simple skills, such as retailing, are more likely to switch jobs (Armstrong, 2009). b) Aspects of Corporate and Human Resources Strategy Nowadays, it is widely believed that human resources of an organization is influential in the organization’s productivity levels. The human resources can as well be the source of an organization’s compet itive advantage over its competitors. This is achieved when the human resources has adopted effective policies for managing people, who are the employees, and these policies have been integrated with the culture of the organization, as well as the strategic business planning of the organization. With this, Aldi, as an organization, can also make use of different aspects of human resources and corporate strategy to enhance its organizational capacity. The human resour

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Journal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 45

Journal - Essay Example Additionally, the title of the article depicts that the story given by Roosi has not yet been validated. This is because of the use of the phrase â€Å"woman says† (Watkins & Almasy 1). On the other hand, the contents of the article are well detailed and include quotations from Roosi and Richard Quest and statements from the Malaysian Airlines. The article has an embedded video with a slide show of the pictures taken by Roosi and her friend at the cockpit in 2011 with Hamid. The article employs a relatively formal language. It quotes the words â€Å"A Current Affair† and â€Å"Piers Morgan Live† to imply that the reader will categorize them as referring to television programs. The tone of the article is apathetic as there is little concern over the matter raised on the conduct of the Malaysian Airlines pilots and the article does not offer recommendations that may assist in averting such an incident in the future. Watkins, Tom, and Steve Almasy. "Jonti Roos says she flew in cockpit with missing pilot." CNN. CNN, 12  Feb.  2014. Web. 12  Mar.  2014.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Perception of Cultural Diversity and Leadership in Global Business Essay

Perception of Cultural Diversity and Leadership in Global Business Environment - Essay Example The desktop research based evidence is poor equipment for a modern manger of business. Our notions and assumption of other cultures gathered from easy armchair research may be the worst trap for a manager. However, the science of ethnography has given insights into patterns of behavior that are found in other cultures and a grounding in the ethnography of the social milieu in which a manager is going to apply the skills is a necessary preparation to function in the international context (Geertz, 1973). Captains of industry and business should undergo a process of empathetic inculterisation with the milieu of their functioning so that they will be in a position to interpret the raison d'etre of the reality in the alien culture. In the wake of globalization, with the increasing internationalization of business and the importance of the perception of cultural diversity for leaders, the academia has churned out a plethora of eminent studies in the field. A review of the literature releva nt to the present study is essential to gain a penetrating insight into the functional aspects of leadership in cultural diversity. Ever since Psychology became an independent branch of enquiry, motivation came under the microscope of scientists. However, the study of motivation in the cultural context is new, early theories form a good beginning. Alfred Adler postulated a theory of drive that motivates humans for action. He calls it striving for perfection (Adler 1926). This striving is expressed in a number of separate drives called the esteem drives. Though Adler's theories do not have the appeal of Freud's with it sex-centric formulations, or Jung's mythological dimensions, for studying motivation and leadership in business it serves as a solid foundation like that of Maslow's theories. . Adler's theory remained a matter of serious pursuit in scholarly circles in spite of its was less flamboyant than the sensational Freudian and Youngian assertions. Victor Frankl's (1963) finding in the dehumanizing conditions of the German concentration camp, which he experienced personally focuses on meaning as the prime source of motivation. Meaning is irrespective of environmental conditions. Frankl observed how people who had meaning endured better the worst atrocities inflicted on them. He puts his theory of human motivation in the borrowed phrase from Nietzsche, if you have a why you almost have a how. The therapy that he derived from his theory he called Logotherapy, which is providing meaning for one's existence. Perception of Diversity as a Management Tool A number of pivotal studies on cultural aspect of motivation and leadership in international business environment has unearthed the areas of trouble and has given a road map to success. Hofstede (1980) has done pioneering work in this area. He has based his theories on the factors that motivate western societies and applied them to international cultural contexts. He finds that loose societies or individualistic societies give lot more priorities to social recognition, self interest and egoism and gives more importance for personal achievement and expects some form of reward. While other cultures are happy to achieve success collectively as the members of the social group.For successful leadership performance, Hofested argues, the

Monday, September 23, 2019

Land Law solve the problem with Sunnydale Cottage Essay

Land Law solve the problem with Sunnydale Cottage - Essay Example †¢In May 2006, Charlotte went abroad for a few months on holiday. She sent post cards to each of the other inhabitants of Sunnydale Cottage saying that she had met Costas, a Greek waiter, and wanted to marry him. Accordingly, she notified them all that â€Å"My one fifth share in Sunnydale Cottage is to be ring-fenced and should anything happen to me Costas is to get it.† The postcard to Barbara was lost in the post and never delivered. Charlotte has tried of Costas and has now returned to live in Sunnydale Cottage. The TLATA avoids this problem as there is no duty to sell under a trust of land, merely a power of sale. All land subject to a trust will be held on a "trust of land" (TLATA s 1). Existing settlements are excluded, but land already held on express or implied trusts for sale are included within the provision. Although it is still possible to create express trusts for sale, as a subset of the trust of land, this will rarely be appropriate for domestic situations, and even here the power to postpone sale cannot be excluded. This means that there is no longer a problem posed by an imperative duty to sell, in situations where that was the last thing intended. One of the most important features of the TLATA is the nature of the trust of land. No longer is there a duty on the trustees to sell the land, there is simply a power to do so if desired. This perhaps reflects the fact that the reasons why trusts are set up nowadays are not the same as in 1925. The trustees of land, when exercising any function relating to the land subject of the trust, are now under a duty (as far as practicable) to consult with beneficiaries of full age and beneficially entitled to an interest in possession in the land. They must give effect to the wishes of those beneficiaries, so far as they are consistent with the general interest of the trust. If there is a dispute among the

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Eating Healthily with a Busy Lifestyle Essay Example for Free

Eating Healthily with a Busy Lifestyle Essay Healthy eating is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle, yet it is often overlooked. As a wellness professional, it’s important to take care of your own wellness in order to maintain the right physical and mental state to help others. When hungry and busy, it’s easy to grab whatever’s closest or whatever sounds tasty at the moment. Unfortunately, the food that sounds best doesn’t always make us feel the best, and the most convenient foods are not often the healthiest. At the same time, healthy eating as a busy wellness professional does not have to become a chore. Many people end up with a misconception that healthy eating is more difficult than it actually is. It simply requires a little bit of planning and thought. The benefits of healthy eating far outweigh any extra time it requires. Written by Larry Lewis I and many others are promoting the benefits of living a healthy lifestyle, but what does that actually mean? In general, most would agree that a healthy person doesn’t smoke, is at a healthy weight, eats a balanced healthy diet, thinks positively, feels relaxed, exercises regularly, has good relationships, and benefits from a good life balance. Maybe I should start by trying to look at a few definitions for the word – lifestyle. A definition in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language says : ‘A way of life or style of living that reflects the attitudes and values of a person or group’. In an Encyclopedia of Public Health: Lifestyle is defined as: In public health, â€Å"lifestyle† generally means a pattern of individual practices and personal behavioural choices that are related to elevated or reduced health risk’. The World Health Organisation in 1946 defined health as ‘A complete state of mental, physical and social well-being not merely the absence of disease’. Wikipedia: defines a lifestyle as the way a person lives. This includes patterns of social relations, consumption, entertainment, and dress. A lifestyle typically also reflects an individual’s attitudes, values or worldview. A healthy lifestyle is generally characterized as a â€Å"balanced life† in which one makes â€Å"wise choices†. A final definition of lifestyle is: The aggregation of decisions by individuals which affect their health, and over which they more or less have control. What is the definition of Healthy Living? The World Health Organization (WHO), defines Health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not simply just the absence of disease. The actual definition of Healthy Living is the steps, actions and strategies one puts in place to achieve optimum health. Healthy Living is about taking responsibility for your decisions and making smart health choices for today and for the future. So healthy living would consist of: Physical (For The Body) * Good Nutrition, Eating Right * Getting Physically Fit, Beneficial Exercise * Adequate Rest * Proper Stress Management Emotional Wellness (For The Mind) * Self-Supportive Attitudes * Positive Thoughts and Viewpoints * Positive Self-Image You Also Need to Give and Receive * Forgiveness * Love and Compassion * You Need to Laugh and Experience Happiness. * You Need Joyful Relationships With Yourself and Others. Spiritual Wellness * Inner Calmness * Openness to Your Creativity * Trust in Your Inner Knowing And all aspects of one’s self, must work in harmony to achieve wellness, so you need to create a balanced life. Why is it Important? Ahealthy lifestyle is a valuable resource for reducing the incidence and impact of health problems, for recovery, for coping with life stressors, and for improving quality of life. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that shows our lifestyles play a huge part in how healthy we are. From what we eat and drink, to how much exercise we take, and whether we smoke or take drugs, all will affect our health, not only in terms of life expectancy, but how long we can expect to live without experiencing chronic disease. Conditions such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, joint disease, and mental illness are responsible for a vast number of deaths and disabilities. Currently, we rely almost exclusively on the provision of clinical care by highly trained health professionals as our major strategy to deal with these conditions. Many health problems can be prevented or at least their occurrence postponed by having a healthy lifestyle. * Why don’t you have a healthy lifestyle? It’s a busy life for most of us. And keeping ourselves healthy is all too rarely near the top of our list of ‘things to do’. Convenience often wins – we are all so busy that convenience is at a premium. Good Health Is ’Simple – But It’s Not Easy’ It is so important to make ‘keeping healthy’ a part of our day-to-day living habits. Your health depends on what you do throughout the day, everyday. A healthy lifestyle is absolutely vital. Here is a real simple solution – slowly improve your lifestyle in a step-by-step way. If you take one new health step every two months, for example, in two to three years you will be among the healthiest ten percent of people in the Western world. And boy will you see and feel the benefits. Improvements do not have to be large steps; take one small step for your health today, keep that one going, and add another one every two months. Have a plan – maybe introduce 6 improvements over the course of a year. Can You Adopt A Healthy Lifestyle? Whatever your age, fitness level or body shape, its never too soon or too late to start thinking about living healthily. You can take a step towards healthy living by making one change now to your daily life. That won’t be so hard will it? Are You Living A Healthy Lifestyle? Do you wake up with enthusiasm for the day ahead? Do you have the high energy you need to do what you want? Do you laugh easily and often, especially at yourself? Do you confidently find solutions for the challenges in your life? Do you feel valued and appreciated? Do you appreciate others and let them know it? Do you have a circle of warm, caring friends? Do the choices you make every day get you what you want? The Components Of A Healthy Lifestyle Eating Healthily The right nutrition is necessary to live a healthy lifestyle. Your body requires a well balanced dietevery day in order to maintain the adequate amounts of vitamins, nutrients and minerals needed to maintain a healthy body. To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art. La Rochefoucauld French Writer An Active Lifestyle You will need to include fitness as part of your life. Physical fitness keeps your weight in check, helps you sleep better at night, prevents heart attacks and strokes and other health problems, and generally prolongs your life. Basically there are so many benefits of exercising that you really can’t live a full life without it. Those who think they have not time for bodily exercise will sooner or later have to find time for illness. Edward Stanley Earl of Derby Stress Management Emotional stress plays an important role in many illnesses, both directly and indirectly. People are also more likely to smoke, overeat, drink too much, work too hard, argue with others and so on, when they are feeling stressed. Thus, stress management is an important part of your new lifestyle, and meditation and relaxation techniques are truly a key part of living a healthy lifestyle. Diseases of the soul are more dangerous and more numerous than those of the body. Marcus Tullius Cicero Roman Philosopher Make Friends With Yourself Loving yourself is a key to a healthy, happy lifestyle. Self-esteem is all about how much people value themselves; the pride they feel in themselves, and how worthwhile they feel. Self-esteem is important because feeling good about yourself can affect how you act. The power of love to change bodies is legendary, built into folklore, common sense, and everyday experience. Love moves the flesh, it pushes matter around†¦ Throughout history, â€Å"tender loving care† has uniformly been recognized as a valuable element in healing. Larry Dossey Physician Powering Up Your Mind And Body Programme your mind for total success. Develop a vision, a compelling future that excites and inspires you, and focus on it daily. Don’t let anything knock you of course, or make you question its possibility. I promise you, by taking control of your thoughts, you will improve your life in a big way. In minds crammed with thoughts, organs clogged with toxins, and bodies stiffened with neglect, there is just no space for anything else. Alison Rose Levy Journalist Life Balance If you want to achieve a healthy lifestyle you must take steps to ensure you maintain a certain level of balance†¦ spiritually, physically, emotionally, socially, mentally and financially. You need to balance work and family, and all the other areas of your life without spreading yourself too thin and having a guilt trip when you do one thing, but think you should be doing another. All of the key areas of our lives overlap and interlink, effecting each other. Unless we create for ourselves satisfaction in each and every part of our life, we can never truly be fulfilled, or live a contented, happy and healthy life. No success in public life can compensate for failure in the home. Benjamin Disraeli British Prime Minister Being Healthy is so important. Just change one thing in your life today. Have a healthy lifebeginning now. Living a healthy lifestyle will bring you happiness, health and the life of your dreams. You can fit into your favourite pair of jeans again. You can enjoy all the benefits that perfect health offers you. You can feel your best at all times of the day. I have spent over ten years working in the area of personal development and in helping others to achieve their potential. It is the belief that everyone should be helped and encouraged to reach their full potential that motivates me in my work as a coach and blogger. I’m passionate about this because I have seen its effects in my own life and the lives of others. I am 100% committed to making the difference, and I pray this is obvious to you through my blog. Life Coaching with Larry I hope this article has helped you in some way today. If you have ended up asking yourself more questions instead of getting questions answered then maybe I can help you. Take up my free 30 minute session to see if life coaching is for you. Does this sound familiar? * In midlife transition and lost the spark and direction? * Looking for more clarity, meaning and joy? * Feeling stuck or confused about your future? * Want to do more, be more, achieve more?

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Psychological research indicating criminals are different from non criminals

Psychological research indicating criminals are different from non criminals Discuss the extent to which psychological research convincingly indicates that criminals are different from non-criminals. The causation of criminality is a prominent concern for our entire society. As a collective society we have what could be described as a vested interest in determining causation. Collectively, as a society we endeavour to live within societial norms and expectations, believing it to be for the common good, we are in possession of a social conscience. But how does the majority of society arrive at such a point? From a societal point of view, we develop our social conscience through the process of socialisation, from primary sources such as our families, secondary, such as schools, a school of thought endorsed by social learning theorists, whereby our behaviour is determined by our environment, we conform to the expectations of our surrounding, by conforming we are participants of the group to which we belong, As a group we believe that how we live is the right and those who do not conform are somehow living beyond the realm of society; That their behaviour is wrong and we who abide by the expected norms are right. But what of the individual within society? What of the individual who develops socially and psychologically to a point that is at odds with societal norms? Can socialisation adequately explain such an occurrence. Indeed what of the individual who arrives at a point whereby they adapt and behave according to society rules and regulations? Is it possible to say one is right and the other is wrong when considering individuality? Social rules and expectations are applied collectively at an individual level. As a society we define laws and regulations and in doing so we define what is deviant, we establish a difference between those who abide and those who do not. These individuals who do not abide by societys rules and regulations are considered abnormal, and those of us who conform and follow are normal. Criminality in this context is considered an abnormality. The idea that criminals are different from non criminals is for some an accepted fact. Early criminology research was based on the belief that the criminal was a separate being from the normal law abiding individual, that criminals where born, as opposed to being made. Cesare Lombroso (1835 1909) an Italian physicist with positivist leanings, hypothesised that criminals where in fact a throwback to earlier stages of the evolutionary process, he described individuals afflicted with this condition as atavistic, claiming that criminals where in possession of physical features which indicated their criminality, such as smaller brains, heavy fleshy jaws, abnormal and asymmetrical skulls. However Lombroso was criticised for studying only convicted criminals and making no comparative research with a control group of non-criminals, it was also suggested that perhaps he was confusing the line between criminality and psychopathology. Whilst these apparent findings hold little stead in modern theories concerning causal factors of criminality, Lombrosos contribution is important as the forerunner for scientific investigation of criminals and their criminality as well as moving away from the idea of humans functioning solely as social beings and drawing attention to human behaviour at the level of the individual. An area of importance to this belief of criminality as a consequence of biological factors is genetics research. Psychologists in Britain during the 1960s purported to have discovered a specific cause of criminality in chromosome abnormalities. Normally, Women are in possession of two X chromosomes while men will have one X and one Y, however research in this area found a high level of convicted criminals had a XYY chromosome, a condition commonly known as XYY syndrome(Sandberg et al 1961). However a subsequent review of these findings by Owen (1972) found that people from all walks of life had this so called abnormality and did not engage in criminal behaviours, it was also found that criminals with this abnormality engaged more so in sexual offences than other offences. Further research conducted in 1976 by Witkin et al did however discover findings which go some way to supporting the hypothesis of the chromosome abnormalities as a causation for criminality; the results of a study of 12 men with the condition found that these men where more likely to engage in criminal behaviours. But the fact remains that members of the general public with this condition do not commit crime and also on the flip side there is a majority proportion of offenders who do not have this condition. The exploration of genetics as a predisposing factor of criminality has three main areas of investigation; family, twin and adoption studies. Family studies are employed based on the idea that family members share the same gene pool and in turn inherit similar characteristics. Osborn and West (1979) conducted research which looked at the sons of men with criminal convictions as well as the sons of men with no criminal convictions, it was found that 40% of the sons of criminals were criminals as opposed to only 13% for the sons of non criminals. However these findings are not definitive in their attempt to establish a genetic predisposition to criminality considering that the children grew up with their fathers, in the same environment, the sons of criminals who themselves engaged in criminality may in fact simply be acting out learned behaviours. However one must also consider why 13% of the sons of non criminals engage in criminality at all, if criminality was determined by genes su rely the rate of criminality in this control group would in fact be zero. While research using family studies has found some significant information indicating that criminality may run in families, it is difficult to ascertain whether the tendency towards criminality is a genetic, environmental or indeed cultural transmission. Twin studies compare monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, the reasoning being that if MZ twins, who share 100% of the same genes, show a high rate of concordance in behaviours or traits, as opposed to FZ twins ,who only share 50% of the same genes, then one could deduce that genetic factors have influenced this outcome. In the case of criminality it could be assumed that there is a genetic basis to criminal behaviour. Mednick and Volavka in 1980 reviewed research conducted using twin studies during the period of 1929 to 1961 and found that approximately 60% of MZ had a high concordance of criminal behaviours as opposed to only 30% of FZ twins.)(Sage dictionary of criminology). In 1977 a study was carried out in Denmark on 3586 twins which found a rate of 52% concordance for MZ twins in comparison to only 22 % for FZ twins (Christiansens as cited in sage dictionary of criminology). However, research and findings using the classical twin study method has met with many criticisms, such as the fact that twins tend to grow up in the same environment and that people tend to treat identical twins in a similar manner to each other due to their physical similarities. Adoption studies was proposed as a more deterministic method of establishing genetic inheritiability of criminality(Mednick, Gabrielli and Hutchings(1987). This method is quite an important, critical method of exploring the effects of nature and nurture, the idea being that if there is a genetic basis for criminality then the adopted away child with a criminal biological parent would be more inclined to engage in criminal behaviours, research conducted by mednick et al in 1983 seemed to back up this hypothesis, the findings of a study of 14500 adopted children found that an adopted male child whose biological parent was a criminal was more likely to engage in criminal behaviour regardless of having grown up in an environment different to that of the biological parent. A review of data collected from over 14,000 adoptions between the years of 1924 to 1947 in Denmark found that some genetic transmission of criminality does exist, however these findings did not extend to all types of cr iminality, in particular violent crime, instead it was found to be operating at the level of crimes against property (Joseph, 2001). Research has also indicated that having a biological criminal mother predisposes adopted away sons to a 50% chance of engaging in crime in comparison to only 5% if the adopted childs biological mother is not a criminal. (Crowe, 1974). The findings of research into biological explanations of criminality does raise some interesting and insightful information, and the possibility that criminality is inherited through ones genes has some validity, it may be that criminals are born with predisposed tendencies which at a biological level does make them different from non criminals, however one can argue where is the explanation for those born with such tendencies who do not engage in criminal behaviour? It could be that each individual differs at the level of personality, it could be that those who do not go on to offend may have a different personality type from those who do. There is some debate about whether personality is something we are born with, i.e. we inherit or if it is something that develops as we grow and mature. Personality differences or individual differences are thought to counter an affect on an individuals propensity towards criminality. It is thought that particular types of personalities are more inclined to engage in criminal behaviour. In relation to criminality Hans Eysencks personality theory posits three personality types; extroversion (E), Neuroticism (N) and Psychoticism (P) ,an element of Eysencks theory which was added at a later point, after further research (Mc LaughlinLaughlin Muncie 2006). The three personality types can be considered as scales with the E scale ranging from High extrovert to low introvert, and the N scale ranging from high neuroticism to low stability. According to Eysenck each individual is capable of engaging in criminal behaviour, but whether one does engage in such behaviour is determined by the cortical and autonomic nervous systems we are born with. These genetic factors affect how an individual will respond to environmental conditioning (Mc Laughl in Muncie 2006). Extroverts, according to Eysenck, are cortically under-aroused, and therefore engage in pleasure and excitement inducing behaviour to increase arousal levels, often displaying traits such as aggressiveness and impulsivity, both traits strongly correlated to criminality. Introverts on the other hand are cortically over aroused and in turn avoid situations and behaviours that over stimulate them. Introverts tend to be more passive and calm. Eysencks theory proposes that extroverts do not condition as effectively as introverts. Neuroticism is connected to the individuals Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), and those individuals who experience high neuroticism tend to be moody and anxious and those who are low on the scale tend to display calm and stable behaviour. Eysenck again links high neuroticism to conditioning, the precept being that the anxiety caused by high neuroticism limits conditioning effects on the individual. The third personality type psychoticism is defin ed to a lesser extent by Eysenck as traits possessed by the individual; high P traits consist of a lack of empathy or feelings for others, sensation seeking, toughmindedness and aggression. The findings of Eysencks research found that offenders scored high on P, and N, but displayed mixed results for E, Eysenck reaction to this was dvelop E into 2 subcategories of Sociability and Impulsiveness, subsequent research found that offenders scored higher on impulsiveness than sociability (Mc Laughlin Muncie 2006). Impulsiveness has often been cited as a causal factor of criminality; in 2001 Lynam Whiteside conceptualised the occurrence of Impulsivity in relation to criminality as a four factor model; Urgency, Lack of Premeditation, Lack of perseverance and sensation seeking. Eysneck defined impulsivity in terms of a causal factor as dysfunctional impulsivity Dysfunctional impulsivity propels the individual to engage in behaviours that are of no benefit to the individual. It is thought t hat dysfunctional impulsive individuals do not process information as effectively as functional impulsive individuals. Cognitive processes are another area in which criminals are thought to differ from non criminals, The Cognitive Dysfunction theory posits that crime is a result of an error in the individuals thinking patterns. Kohlbergs Moral Development theory is also concerned with the cognitive abilities of the criminal, suggesting that the cognitive functions of the criminal are less developed than those of the non criminal. Kohlberg outlines three stages of development in relation to individual moral reasoning; Pre-conventional, Conventional and Post conventional, he believed that criminals tend to stagnate at the pre-conventional stage whereby individuals engage in basic thinking and acting on instinct. All such theories wherein the causation of criminality is attributed to internal aspects and functioning of the individual raise questions and indeed does suggest compelling evidence that would appear to indicate that criminals are inherently different at a biological level to non criminals. But as individuals we interact as social beings, we are hugely influenced by our environment and any conclusions regarding the causal factors of criminality must consider such influences; Social learning theory posits that criminality is in fact a learned response. There is much research findings which support social learning, the most well known example being Albert Banduras Bobo Doll experiment, wherein three groups of children where put into different experimental groups. Group one saw an adult play nicely with the doll, group two saw just the doll and group three saw an adult be aggressive to the doll. Afterwards the children where allowed to play with the doll, the group who saw the adult ac t aggressively to the doll replicated the behaviours while the other two groups played nicely (Ainsworth, P, B 200:83). Such a strong finding as this shows us the high impact ones environment will have on behaviour and that biological factors alone simply cannot account for all criminality. To grow up in an environment where criminality prevails incites a different learned response to the idea of criminality. However there is certainly evidence to suggest that at a biological level criminals are indeed different from non criminals, but it is not and should not be considered a deterministic fact of criminality, many individuals with such predispositions as discussed do not go on to engage in criminal behaviours, indeed many individuals who grow up in a criminal environment do not go on to offend and some criminals do not have the genetic predisposition or indeed the environmental influence and yet they have engaged in criminality. Criminality, as with most phenomenas in modern psycho logy must be considered as an interaction of such factors. Word Count 2410