Friday, May 31, 2019
Analysis of Birches The discursive blank-verse meditation Birches does not center on a continuously encountered and revealing constitution scene rather, it builds a mosaic of thoughts from fragments of memory and fantasy. Its vividness and genial, bittersweet speculation help make it one of Frosts most popular poems, and because its shifts of metaphor and tone draw varying interpretation it has also received much critical discussion, not always admiring. The poem moves back and forth between two visual perspectives birch tree trees as bent by boys playful swinging and by ice storms, the thematic interweaving being somewhat puzzling. The birches bent across the lines of straighter darker trees subtly introduce the floor of imagination and will opposing darker realities. Then, almost a third of the poem describes how ice storms bend these trees permanently, unlike the action of boys this scene combines images of beauty and of distortion. Ice shells kick up radiating light and colo r, and the trees bowed to the level of the bracken, suggest suffering, which is immediately lighte...
Thursday, May 30, 2019
The story revelation is one that demonstrates and explains Human Worth, Religion, and Society in a very extreme, but very comprehendible way. Mrs. Turpin who believes that in society there are race like her and her husband ( home and land owners) who are above all others except people with much money and land. On the bottom of the heap were most colored people then next to them not above just away from them were the white-trash, and then above them the home and land owners to which she a Claud belonged. She has a very strong belief this and Thanks God that he didnt make her like any of those people below her. Even goes as far as debating lives if God would have a given her a choice between any of the people she thinks she is break out than. A trip to the doctors office for her husbands ulcer brings a new revelation for Mrs. Turpin. While observing the people in the waiting room, she analyzes them and gives them titles in the groups below her. White- trash, miserable and so on. There is one girl in the room though who seems to really have something against Mrs. Turpin. Every definition she makes seems to upset the young girl and make her agitation to rise. It disturbs and also confuses her because she cant understand why the girl who doesnt even know her would penury to ac so rudely towards such a kind a giving woman such as her. All at once the ugly girl turned her lips inside out again. Her eyes fixed like two drills on Mrs. Turpin. This time there was no mistaking that there was something imperative behind them. Continuing on in conversation with the white- trash an outburst of thanking the lord aloud causes the young lady to suddenly hurl the book she was variant at Mrs. Turpin and jumping across the table and attempting to choke her. The nurse and doctor try to contain the young girl while slowly giving her a shot in the arm to calm her insanity down. Leaving everyone in shock and disbelief, especially in the case of Mrs. Turpin she boldly asks w hat the girl has to say to her. cave in her eyes on her the young girl says in a clear, but quiet tone Go back to hell where you came from, you old warthog. This ugly direful young girl is the thing through which the truth is revealed to Mrs.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Alfred Hitchcocks Rear Window In Rear Window, Alfred Hitchcock took a plot-driven short story and transformed it into a character-driven movie. Although differences must exist between text and scud, because of the limitations and advantages of the various media, Hitchcock has done more than translate a word-based story into a visual movie. Aside from adding enough details to fill a two-hour movie, Hitchcock has done much to transmute the perspective of the story, as well as the main character. The novels Hal Jeffries, a seemingly hard-boiled and not overly intellectual man contrasts astutely with the photojournalist J.B. Jeffries of the movie. The addition of supporting characters, such as Lisa, diminishes somewhat the loneliness of the short story character. The character in the short story has more in putting surface with Humphrey Bogarts Sam Spade than with Jimmy Stewarts Jeff. That Hitchcock took a story written in a style similar to Dashiell Hammett or Raym ond Chandler, and chose not to throw away a film noir detective story speaks much to Hitchcocks purpose here. Rather than creating a conventional detective story, Hitchcock creates an everyman, whose injury prevents him from action. The impotence the character feels heightens the tightness of the film, as well by forcing the viewers to identify with his frustration. The movie disguises the many of the darker moments with humor, a device commonly used to lessen the shock of less gratifying aspects of a story. While the story was merely the narrative of one man, the film portrays different concepts of, and stages of love, in the images of the people across the way. The story is a guiltily think narrative of one mans voyeurism, repeatedly rationalized by him. B... ...that we, not Jeff, have been spying on the neighbors across the way. While both the story and the film contain aspects of voyeurism, as well as a physically limited character, Hitchcocks film does mor e than simply add enough filler to nail a movie. He adds facets to the character not included in the story. He provides the character with a career and social life and motivation. Additionally, Hitchcock uses the visual aspects of the film to fix more about the characters. By associating Thorwald with the color red, and using light and shadow to highlight Jeffs ambivalence about Lisa, we get hints about how we are supposed(a) to feel about the various characters. Hitchcock has taken an adequate short story and transformed it into a fascinating and funny character study that seems to comment on the isolation of life in a modern urban environment.
Part II The title For Whom the Bell Tolls symbolizes the uncertainty of life and destiny, where the main geek in this story finds himself in a series of unpredictable situations that are beyond his control. The only certain event in life is death and cunning that this may happen to anyone at any time, renders the protagonist powerless against destiny, which he approaches with a fatalistic disposition. Part III For Whom the Bell Tolls takes place in Spain, during the blooming(a) civil war, between the years of 1938 and 1942. It unravels among people who live in the rural mountain areas of Spain. They were forced to kill others in order to survive and to defend their soil from fascist. The environment where the actions unfolds are the roughed mountains. A lot of killing takes place in this story. It certainly was a time of fear and desperation. Many heroic military full treatment are depicted here Robert Jordan and his group of internationalists sabotaged bridges, trains and buil ding. Lots of peasants are starved, tortured and killed, and many children were left orphaned. Part IV 1 "He lay compressed on the brown, pine-needle floor of the forest, his chin on his folded arms, and high overhead the wind blew in the tops of the pine tree"(p.1) 2 "He crosses the stream, picked a retell handful, washed the muddy roots clean in the current and then sat down again beside his pack and ate the clean, cool green leaves and the crisp, peppery-tasting stalks"(p.12) 3 "Robert Jordan breathed deeply of the clear night air of the mountains that smelled of the pines and of the dew grass in the meadow by the stream. Dew had fallen heavily sin the wind had dropped."(p.64) 4 " presently the morning was late May, the sky was high and clear and the wind blew warm on Robert Jordans shoulders."(p.311) 5 "Then he heard the far-off, distant buffeting and, looking up, he saw the planes"(p.329) 6 " Sweeeish-crack-boom It came, the swishin g like the noise of a rocket and there was another up-pulsing of dirt and smoke farther up the hillside"(p.494) 7 "The others came behind him and Robert Jordan saw them crossing the road and slamming on up the green slope and heard the machine gun hammer at the bridge"(p.505) 8 "He looked very carefully around the withers of the dead horse and there was a quick hammering of firing from behind a boulder well down the slope and he heard the bullets from the submachine gun thud into the horse"(p.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Human Memory Organization.Human reposition organization, from the outside, seems to be quite a difficult thingto analyse, and redden more difficult to explain in black and white. This isbecause of one main reason, no two humans are the same, and from this it followsthat no two brains are the same.However, by and by saying that, it must be true that everyones memory works inroughly the same way, otherwise we would not be the race called humans. The waythe memory is arranged, is in all probability the most important part of our bodies, as itis our memory that controls us.I think that it is reasonable to suggest that our memory is ordered in some way,and it is probably easy to think of it as three different sections short term,medium term, and long term memory.Short precondition This is where all of the perceptions we get come to. From theeyes, nose, ears, jumpiness etc. They come in at such a rate, that there needs tobe a part of memory that is fast, and can sift by means of a ll of these signals, andthen pass them down the line for use, or storage. Short term memory probably hasno real capacity for storage.Medium Term This is where all of the teaching from the short term memorycomes to be processed. It analyses it, and then decides what to do with it (useit, or store it). Here also is where stored information is called to forprocessing when needed. This patient of of memory has some kind of limited storagespace, which is used when processing information, however the trade-off is thatis slower than Short term memory. eagle-eyed Term Long term memory is the dumping ground for all of the usedinformation. Here is where the Medium term memory puts, and takes itsinformation to and from. It has a large amount of space, scarcely is relatively slowin comparison with the other kinds of memory, and the way that the memory isstored is dubious as we are all knows to forget things.There is quite a good analogy in Sommerfield (forth edition p24-p25). Short termmemor y is comparable to computers registers, medium term (Working memory) islike a volatile storage bunk for information, and long term memory is like harddisk storage.I think that this is quite a good way of describing our own memory hierarchy.It seems that when information is being processed, and then in turn stored, itis not being stored as raw information such as black, round etc.
Human Memory Organization.Human computer memory organization, from the outside, seems to be quite a difficult thingto analyse, and even more than difficult to explain in black and white. This isbecause of one main reason, no two humans are the same, and from this it followsthat no two brains are the same.However, after say that, it must be true that everyones memory works inroughly the same way, otherwise we would not be the race c every(prenominal)ed humans. The waythe memory is arranged, is credibly the most important part of our bodies, as itis our memory that controls us.I think that it is reasonable to suggest that our memory is ordered in some way,and it is probably clean to think of it as three different sections short bourne,medium term, and coherent term memory.Short Term This is where all in all of the perceptions we get come to. From theeyes, nose, ears, nerves etcetera They come in at such a rate, that there needs tobe a part of memory that is fast, and can sift through all of these signals, andthen pass them down the line for use, or storage. Short term memory probably hasno real capacity for storage.Medium Term This is where all of the information from the short term memorycomes to be processed. It analyses it, and then decides what to do with it (useit, or store it). Here also is where stored information is called to forprocessing when needed. This kind of memory has some kind of limited storagespace, which is used when processing information, however the trade-off is thatis slower than Short term memory.Long Term Long term memory is the dumping ground for all of the usedinformation. Here is where the Medium term memory puts, and takes itsinformation to and from. It has a large amount of space, but is relatively slowin comparison with the other kinds of memory, and the way that the memory isstored is dubious as we are all knows to forget things.There is quite a practised analogy in Sommerfield (forth edition p24-p25). Short termmemory is comparable to computers registers, medium term (Working memory) islike a volatile storage place for information, and long term memory is like harddisk storage.I think that this is quite a good way of describing our own memory hierarchy.It seems that when information is cosmos processed, and then in turn stored, itis not being stored as raw information such as black, round etc.
Monday, May 27, 2019
5. Structure of the Tao Yin female slow dark night passive transcendent earth Yang male fast bright day aggressive logical sky Yin and Yang are immortals they have a love/ have relationship all(prenominal) person has yin and yang 6. The wu-wei non-action, respect to the flow of time, the art of waiting. Opposite of confusious Buddha Buddha is a spiritualist, a prince, gifted 1. Darhma (The studying) -what is the meaning of human life? Dukkha suffering, fight, struggle, competition Why do we call in upon ourselves unnecessary suffering? Tanha egotism, selfishness, Trrisha greed, addiction to pleasure Hu simulateism seeking pleasure over pain.Seeking pleasure is a very sophisticated trap any addiction Is loss of freedom. You become a slave of your pleasure What to do? Anatta abstinence, restrained. No to any excessive pleasure. The art of no. What is the goal? Anicca liberation from addiction 2. The octet fold Noble Path Panna wisdom 1. Understanding 2. Purpose sila conflic t 3. Speech 4. Behavior Five moral rules do non kill, steal, adultry, drugs, gossips Have consistancy in your morality, hypocracy corrupts you, dont live a double life, fake identity Steps 1-5 are for normal people 6-8 are for monks or nuns. Samadhi Contemplation 6. driving you control your body, physical needs, tell body when to sleep and eat 7. thoughtfulness control your emotions 8. Dhayana deep meditation control your mind. 3. Karma 3 types of karma * Sabija Karma my birth karma. Born with finis in sould, reincarnation 4. Nirvana Two kingdoms of reality Samsava kingdom of pleasure, shallow Alaya Vijhara The Kingdom of internal views, deep Nirvana the state of eternal spiritual pleasure Protageras He was king of sophists in athens. Sophist pofessional teacher 1. Panton anttropas metron man is the measure of all things 2.Subjectivism there is no objective justice, every lawfulness is somebodys truth, or has its face 3. Relativism as many people as many truths, they are all equal. Accepting diversity 4. Pragmatism truth has to be helpful, practical, useable 5. Conventionalism truth is what we have agreed upon (sometimes silently) Ex cultural expectations, gender roles 6. Con course of actionism truth of the majority has to be respected by the minorities 7. Tolerance The truth of the minority has to be tolerated by the majority He reminds me of president obama because his ideas reflect democratic beliefs. Socrates 1. Choti Seanton Know Yourself.We humans are animals + Animals + psyche ( soul) Care for your soul mortal = my self reflection We are reflective animals To reflect = to have knowledge I know that I know nothing a life unexamined is not worth living 2. Epistemology (4 principles) Define the basic concepts as clear as you can, avoid misunderstandings Dont be afraid of expert contradictions, diversity in opinions Socratic irony, dont lose your sense of humor, dont take yourself so seriously Only perfection knows the absolute truth, our human truth is limited Protageras absolute truth doesnt exist Socrates absolute truth exits hardly only god knows 3. object lesson Philosophy The essence of morality is to teach us arete virtue, skills Perfect your skills, perectionism Its better to not be committed than to have a loose commitment Skills =knowledge Life-long education, ignorance is the mother of all evil 4. The idea of god God is the one, god is the absolute wisdom God is my moral vocation God is the voice of my conscience He believes in one god, god speaks to us from inside Find god through self reflection Plato Rich talented, student of socrates 1. Ontology What is the structure of reality?Being essence deep turn logical traditional moral spiritual eternal Becoming surface, shallow, content, fashionable immoral material temporary What is the structure of being? Being consists of eidoses Eidos spiritual form, intellectual bluepring , the law, the mold, the model Anything that exists physically has an eidos, it creates each specific physical ting Invention does not exist discovery, before discovery eidos exists but its like a gelid sun without rays The eidos of eidoses is goodness 2. Epistemelogy LevelsRealityKnowledge 1.Fake images illusions, kingdom of the stupid, wild imagination 2. Physcial things, kingdom of the everyday life, practical common sense 3. Low level idoses, kingdom of the skipper, professional analytic mind 4. High eidoses, (love, justice, forgiveness) kingdom of the genius, the intellectual intuition of the genius 1 and 2 is becoming 3 and 4 is being 1 is hokey life, building a bubble around yourself 2. Practical things know how to take care of yourself 3. Professional knowledge become an expert in a up to(p) need an analytical mind 4.Very few geniuses, best of the best, shakespeare, einstein, mozart. Have a gift from god or not, only males are geniuses, women are of course born with common sens e and to become a genius you have to kill your common sense, every genius is a madman 3. virtuous Philosophy To be moral means to have a arete virture The fear of social change, social disorder, social chaos. Arete = not so much perfection but discipline, obedience, good organization, loyalty Plato supports closed social classes doesnt like social mobility, caste system 4. Hates democracy.Problems are phony promises of politicians, equal political rights for unequally ameliorate people, excessive freedoms result is anarchy and tyranny he wants aristocratic republic Reminds me of hitler Aristotle Platos student 1. Ontology The kingdom of eidoses doesnt exist, only nature does exist. Nature is a supply total of physical things any physical thing consists of hyle body, matter and telos form Telos not so much outer form but an inner form the potential of the thing its prgram Dna ex potential of talent God is the telos of nature when you die your telos dies god and nature coexist eternally 2.Eistemology Using card and experimentation collect all relevant fact s, using analysis, find out the laws of those facts, using logic, combine these laws into a comprehensive theory Scientific theory 3. Moral Philosophy Nicomachagu Ethics Eudaimonia noble destiny, fulfilling duty Sophro syhe moderation Have good taste keep the mean, be a gentleman Fulfill your telos he believes all of us have gifts a duty to fulfill your gift, work hard we each have gifts to different degrees Dont betray yourself (lie, cheat).Every betrayal starts as self betrayal you destroy yourself and then destroy everyone around you Honesty and integrity Obstacles dont underestimate them but dont overestimate them Pleasure not the goal of your activity but a by product Build your character its better to be evermore bad then unpridictable either be always bad or always bood Friendship be a good loyal friend 4. semipolitical Philosophy Democracy is the best regime Democracy is the power of middle class The middle class is the foundation of the healthy society.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
As citizens of the United States, we have the option if deemed necessary to possess a artillery unit and use of equitables and services it for self-defense. The Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution, second amendment states that we have the reclaim to bear and keep arms. Because often amply annoyance rate in some aras may be a reason why a citizen may choose to escape a hide ordnance. Crime is something that looks like it furnish behind be an unending internet site that is non even close to going away. Possessing a weapon as a use for self-defense leave alone help to protect a citizen when cardinal needs to defend themselves. Others of us feel that firearms play an important role in our lives both from the standpoint of sporting and hunting as well as their application to principles f self-defense particularly when patients represent a high risk population (Dante, 1996). One may agree that having a conceal weapon would decrease the offensive rate but the question is, does it re all(prenominal)y make a difference? Criminals have a choice about committing a abomination or not. Many believe that restricting gate to firearms would result in a decrease in law-breaking, especially carmine wickedness.Others believe that restricting access to guns would have little to no effect on crime rates and would only trample the rectifys of US citizens to possess guns (Gigs, 2009). Owning a gun is seed principally for self-defense against a cruel and not to mention animals that be out of control. We Just need to keep in mind that a weapon is not a toy and that there are consequences to pay if not used correctly. Each one-on-one state has its own laws on galloping a obscure weapon. Depending on which state that a citizen is a resident of is where it is based on whether a citizen can deem a hide weapon have.The different permits for carrying obscure weapons among states are shall-issue, may-issue, and right denied. something to be aware about a concealed weapon permit is not all state permits are honored in other state. For example, if one were to get a concealed weapons permit in California the permit will not be honored in Nevada. There are some advantages and disadvantages when it comes to being allowed to carry a concealed weapon and reasons why some of these laws may or may not be so lenient. Some states like Texas and Florida are liberalizing the laws for carrying a concealed weapon. Some states are tightening or toughening up the laws concerning obtaining a concealed weapon. These include Massachusetts and New York (Dante, 1996). on the whole citizens should have the right to carry within limitations. Is it true that there is a relationship between right to carry individuals and profit in violent crime? In Citizen defend thyself, it states that the relationship between right to carry and high crime rates are actually lowered (Hood, 2009).GAO reports that as of March 2012, the right to carry law is current ly allowed in all states, except Illinois. The laws aiding these states allow right to carry laws, and the argument still is skeptical of the look for behind the gross profit margin of this law. Despite the research that points to the conclusion that violence is variable, public suspicion points that violence increases with the ability of a citizen to carry concealed arms. However, according to GAO, the amount of individuals issued concealed weapons permit is 8 million citizens.The United States census states the population of the United States currently as 314,441,706 the relationship displays that less than 3% of the overall population maintains a concealed weapons permit. The majority of the population does not carry a concealed weapon manifest. The relationship between the aspect of increased violent crime and right to carry does not search substantiated u to such a low national ratio of concealed weapons license. In actuality, this will show that right carry laws go forth a direct impact on preventing violent crimes than the assumption otherwise.Individuals need to base their priority on obtaining a concealed weapons license on special criteria. Each state varies on issuing a weapons permit, play down checks must be completed, and the extent of the background check varies with the state. According to Hood, right to carry laws should be evaluated on an individual grounding, based on the area he or she is in, consistency of ravel, and prior background. The amount of applications that are denied a concealed permit is to a lower place the complete discretion of the state.Depending if the state has a may issue or shall-issue permit law, the discretion is normally used on the cause for the applicant. Hood explained that or so applicants that apply for concealed weapon license is due to the fact of personal protection from a prior experience as a crime victim. A victim that has been directly affected by a violent crime may never feel safe without a co ncealed weapon at his or her side. A concealed weapon will be useful to he applicant if he or she has received threats or lives in a high crime area.If the individual lives in a high area of crime, the relationship between fear of a crime and when a crime will be committed is Just reason for the citizen to be granted a permit. In California, issuing authorities (local law en pressment) told us that an example of a good cause is a business owner who may regularly retain cash on-hand used to pay employees. (GAO, 2012, p. 13) How frequently an individual travels with a concealed weapon is also a basis of Judgment to consider issuing permits.If the individuals behavior produces an unwillingness to leave a weapon at home instead of carrying it crossways state repeatedly, this might show that in reality the person is not concealing a weapon Just in the high rate of crime area. This basis will work more effectively in preventing the wrong hands in acquiring a concealed weapon license. Sim ple background checks in some states such as Colorado, allow us to rethink the policies to issue weapons to the general public. The necessity of right to carry and conceal on an individual basis will help avoid tragedies and catastrophe that shame our moral obligation to societys welfare.Right to carry laws does not interfere or cause violent crime in society. The presumption of citizens that carry a concealed weapon is the cause of society violent behavior need to be reevaluated based on research in high rate areas. The roughly important reason all citizens should have the right to carry arms based on an individual basis is because the passage of right to carry law actually lowers the incident of violent crime. Hood also explains that in New siege of Orleans, the percentage of concealed weapons carriers and the relationship to high crime is lowered in the eyes off permit holder.The use of a scientific survey to the general population in New Orleans shows most evidentially when que stioned if their city was below the national crime average. In Hoods survey, 33% of non-permit holders believed it was lower, while 38% of permit holders believed their city was below the national average. However, the fact form that the effects of right to carry laws vary across time, geographic context, and by the type of crime. Citizens are the variable in each equation and if you isolate all violent crimes into one group it would not benefit the scientific research inhibited concealed weapons.This relationship is caused by the type of crime, for instance an individual that was mugged will have a different experience if someone was sexually assaulted or raped. In Crime in economicals and states, it explains that crime is subject also to the economic state of the country, not just type of crime. If a country economic state is poor, you would most likely see a reaction by an increase in theft. (Bessie, 1999) Obtaining a concealed license and the type of crime has to be evaluated and determined if the crime was avoided or it was cause of the crime.Citizens that can carry a concealed weapon feel safer in high rime areas. The disadvantage of others that may be harmed due to the fact of a concealed weapon on person is the state of mind of the carrier. However, in light of concealed permit holders state of mind, this group feels the area around them is a much safer place than without a concealed weapon. The reality of Justifying good cause for a moral individual to be issued a concealed weapons permit will be a deterrent for violent crime to occur. Why is Japan considered to be the safest country?In Japan the crime rate is not so high and Japanese citizens can leave a bicycle unlocked without worrying about someone stealing it. The Japanese Justice Ministrys Research and Training Institute has, in its 1977 White news report on Crime, compared domestic crime rates to those abroad and says that Japan is by far the safest industrialized nation in the world (Dougla s, 1977). Japan is known to be a safe place with less crime compared to the United States. Japans gun-related crime rate is only eleven deaths per year which is unbelievable when we look at the crime rate in the United States.The only weapons that are allowed in Japan are air guns and shotguns. The process to get a gun is rather lengthy. Japanese law, however, tarts with the 1958 act stating that No person shall possess a firearm or firearms or a sword or swords, later adding a few exceptions. (Fisher, 2012). To get into a gun, a Japanese citizen needs to go through a one day branch and passing a written test, passing a shooting range class, mental fitness and drug testing by a medical check- up. The medical reports need to be filed with the police.There is also a criminal background check that is drived for the air gun or shotgun. Once all the requirements are met, you would need to provide all the necessary documentation on where the gun will be kept and locked in the house. Th e police are required to inspect the gun every year while re-taking a class and test every three years. The process is difficult and in my opinion would discourage a Japanese citizen from having a gun. Japanese citizens do not seem to have any issues about their gun laws.The gun control and laws are stricter in Japan, forbidding sales and buying of handguns, small-caliber rifles, and toy guns. A Japanese citizen could be charged with holding a gun, possessing and shooting unlicensed bullets if they were to shoot a gun. Although Japanese citizens are limited to owning air guns and shot guns, enforcing a concealed weapons license may not be something that Japanese citizens would consider because their police force takes care of their Job in a manner that one would not require one to own a handgun. Japan enjoys one other benefit that may be related to the low crime rate, an efficient police force and a tradition of citizen cooperation, which help give the country the highest arrest rat e, relative to crimes committed, of all advanced nations (Fisher, 2012). In conclusion, the fact remains that the effect of right to carry law varies across time, geographic context, and by the type of crime. All citizens should have the right to carry arms within limitation for two main reasons. First, right to carry law should be evaluated on an individual basis based on area he or she in is, consistency of travel, and prior background.But most importantly, the passage of the right to carry law lowers the incident of violent crimes. As the respective examples of Luxembourg and Russia suggest, the kinds of people who murder will either find guns scorn severe controls or will find other weapons with which to kill (Amuser, 2006). The majority of people that apply for the concealed weapons licenses have been victims of crime. Owners of a concealed weapons license typically view their society a safer place. Plainsman (n. D. ) states looting rates in right-to carry states were rising u ntil the laws were passed and then fell continually after that point. Is there a Robbery Effect If a person is unstable, then most likely they will not be able to complete the process to obtain a concealed carry license. Its not the license that causes crime, but its the persons mentality. According to The First Decade Of The Tennessee Handgun Permit Law Shows Very Good Results By Legally gird Citizens In Tennessee (2004), There are o incidents that can be found where in a defensive incident a Tennessee Handgun Permit carrier shot or wounded in some manner, any innocent person.There are a number of defensive incidents where a Tennessee Handgun Permit carrier used his or her pistol to defend themselves or another party but, only the aggressor was harmed. (Self-Defense Incidents Also Reflect Good Results). Q). If a no concealed carry law passes then thats only going to stop the law abiding citizens, not the criminals. Just because a person has a license to carry a concealed weapon , does not cause violent crime in society. Crime is created by the state of mind of the person with the weapon, not by the fairness of owning a weapon.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Anselms Monologion is at first a detailed expansion of his more famous ontology the proof of the existence of theology as expressed elsewhere. In this proof deity is first equated with the closely perfect being, and then it is demonstrated that such a being necessarily exists. The Monologion is moderate-to doe with more with the nature of the most perfect being, and what else foot be predicated ab reveal it, in relation to itself, and to created beings.The same line of argument is followed, where the oneness and the perfection of the exacting creation atomic number 18 emphasized, moreover after a point we nonice that the effort is diverted into explaining the Christian article of faith of the Trinity, so that divinity is said to be three souls in one substance, and yet indivisibly one. It needs to be remembered that Anselm does non attempt to prove the doctrine of the Trinity. Therefore the last mentioned part of the Monologion is re solelyy smooth-tongued rather than demonstrative. The aim is to convince us of the reasonableness of the doctrine of the Trinity. It will be instructive to recall Anselms ontology here.In order to divert some(prenominal) suspicion of sophism, Anselm introduces the argument as taking place in the head of a fool. This fool denies the existence of a supreme and Perfect Being. scarce when he tries to imagine someaffair of the kind in his head, he movenot. Whatever great thing he imagines, it is not final, because the mind soars inexorably past it and imagines something even greater. The mind tries to stab perfection, but cannot do so. Anselm argues that if at that place were no perfect being, then the mind chases after nothing, which cannot be so. So there must be a thing called Perfection, at least as an idea.Next he supposes the case where the Perfection is only in the mind and not in reality. If this were the case then it would not be the most perfect thing, because being only in the mind, the mind would t hen try to imagine something even greater than it. Therefore the Perfect Being has real existence. The Monologion opens with a variation on this ontology, postulating that all things that are good, or great, or virtuous in any way, are so due to the goodness, brilliance or virtue of the Supreme Being, which must necessarily exist as the abode or perfection and being whereby everything else derives its qualities and its existence.It then tries to fix the nature of this Supreme Being, and concludes that whatever qualities it possesses it does so by itself, from itself, and through itself. And at the same time all created beings possess their qualities and their existence by, from and through the Supreme Being. So that a person can be said to be just, which implies a comparison. He is just because he has more justice in him then the next person. But with God there is no comparison, so that He is Justice itself. He is said to exist in all places and in all times, and this sense exists in the truest sense.In comparison all created being can be said not to exist at all, and at best that they exist in a restrict sense. They are mutable, so that whatever existence they have is fleeting nothing is ever what it was a moment ago. Therefore, the Supreme Being not only brings them into existence, but sustains their existence too. These are things demonstrated in the first part of the Monologion, and all the arguments follow the same pattern as in the ontology, i. e. it employs the oneness and perfection of God.But then Anselm comes to consider the Expression of the Supreme Being. All created existence is but a manifestation of the Expression. We must next consider whether this Expression is withal a creature. But it cannot be so, because all creatures come to existence through the Expression, and the Expression cannot come into being through itself. If it is not a creature then it can only consubstantial with the Supreme Being. Here it is established that the Expressio n of the Supreme Being cannot be anything translucent from it.It must therefore be sufficient in itself, and need not depend of created beings, having existence before creating things came into being, and even after the final dissolution of things. So we need to find a way to signalise the Expression to relation to God alone. Anselm describes it as the understanding of God. It can be seen as a means by which God comes to understand Himself. It is plain that God cannot be in the dark about his own nature, says Anselm, and he points out that even the human mind understands itself. The mind is conscious of itself, can remember itself, can reason with itself.This is but the mind understanding itself. If the mind can understand itself to some extent, there is no doubt that the Supreme Being understands itself, and does so not partially, but wholly. It is indeed the aspect we make love as divine wisdom. The next step is to equate the Expression with the news. In truth, an analogy is he re being drawn between words, which are the units of human language, and the essence of expression. In a word is the image of the thing as we sense it. Therefore, in words are the expressions of all things, and as words all things are represented in the human mind.There are, no doubt, some other carriers of expression, for example, pictures, sculptures, tastes, smells, etc. But the word is the purest and most powerful medium. It is the building block of language, and gum olibanum is the bearer of culture and civilization. We have many words, and these exist so that all things may be represented in the mind, and even then it is inadequate to bring the whole diverse splendor of the universe to us. Anselm asks the question whether the divine expression employs many words. But quickly demonstrates that such diversity would detract from the perfection of the divine expression.If the Expression is one, and the word is made consubstantial to it, then the word is also one, and this is th e Word. It is the supreme image of the divine, but it also forms an identity with the divine. From it is derived all other words, and indeed all other images. Since all things are created in the image of the divine, the Word is indeed the source of all Creation. Anselm thus far has arrived at the Biblical assertion, as found in the Gospel of John In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God (John 11).Anselm points out a possible difficulty at this point. If it is true that the Word brings all things into existence in the manner of lending to them its own image, then it must be somehow like the things which are created, being in its own image. He considers the three mutually exhaustive cases. Either the likeness is (1) exact, (2) partial, or (3) non-existent. It is obvious that there cannot be an exact likeness, because created things are mutable, and the Word is not. A partial likeness implies that some aspects of the creating being do not derive fr om the Word, which is also plainly false.If there no likeness at all then there is no creation either. Anselm suggests that we come over this difficulty by using the comparison the other way. This means that we should compare created beings to the Word, and not the other way round. All created things must compare to the Word is some degree. And the degree to which they do compare is the degree of their existence. To voluptuous on the theme of degrees of existence, Anselm asks us to consider the gradated nature of all created things.The rational human mind is certainly superior to the sensual human clay the sensual animals are certainly superior to the non-sensual plants the sentient plants are superior to the non-sentient and material substances. Each created being is an effulgence of the Word, and it must necessarily be so, because the Word is the expression of the divine. But there seems to be a gradation that rises to make the image of the divine truer and truer. When we arrive at the rational human mind we have self-reflexive understanding, which is an attribute we apply properly only to the divine mind.But then, human reason does not comprehend itself finally, and neither can it come to an understanding of what it sees as God and the universe. On the other hand, the Spirit that is God comprehends itself fully, and this through the means of the Word. Therefore we must conclude that the human mind is an effulgence of the Word, but it is not the Word itself. Through a multiplicity of words the human mind can grapple with the infinite expanse that it finds before it, and can come to know of the existence of the Word, thus of God, though it cannot know the Word itself.We may assert that the rational mind is the greatest among all created things, and therefore bears the greatest likeness with the Word, and thus possess more reality that anything else in the phenomenal world. Though none can deny that it is a created, and thus limited thing. This much Anselm attempts to prove. Much of the latter part of the Monologion is not proof but suggestion. The starting point of such suggestion is when Anselm insists that the Expression be construed as something distinct from the Supreme Being.Having already proved that there cannot be any distinction, Anselm seems to be taking liberties now. He wants to be reasonable instead of rational. It is as if he is encountering God as a person instead of a matter of logic. In the sense that we would not mistake the expression of a person with the person himself, so Anselm describes the Word as distinct from the Supreme Being, And further on he will give the description a more personal character by saying that the Word in begotten by the Supreme Being in the way that the son is begotten of the father. He is at pains to point out, though, that it is an indefinable plurality.To be sure, ineffablebecause although necessity compels that they be two, what two they are cannot at all be expressed (Anselm 53). In the end it is an article of faith that he is espousing. To think in this way is to gain a glimpse into the deepest mysteries of the divine, and this is what increases devotion and strengthens faith. Once we admit two distinct beings in God, there issues by necessity a third, with is Love, which is that by which the Son is united with Father and the Father with the Son. This is the doctrine of the Trinity, that which Anselm has been aiming at from the beginning. We draw the following conclusion.In the Monologion it is Anselms task to prove the existence of God and to expound on the perfection of His nature. The proofs that he provides for the existence and perfection of God are thorough and irrefutable. He elaborates on the Expression of God as the source of all created existence. But even though he establishes that, in a strictly logical sense, we cannot apply predicates to God, he nevertheless goes on espouse the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. He is careful to point out that this latter assertion is not a proof, but is rather the most reasonable predicate that can be applied to God.
Friday, May 24, 2019
Developing pertly ways of thinking about what we already know is very important as it helps us to develop a better understanding of that which we already know so to some(prenominal) extent the above statement is true. However it is as significant to strickle new data or facts. In fact these two concepts go hand in hand it is because of some discoveries that we knew when they first came to light that we bring something we distinguish existing fri stopship to think about and sometimes it is through trying to develop new ways of thinking about a certain unloose without a solution that we fin entirelyy decide it is best to find a new explanation or concept of looking at it.A scholarly person who goes from lower to higher school both learns new and advanced ways of thinking about the information they have gathitherd in previous grades as well as some new data they have never come across before which further stresses that both concepts are important. We cannot learn everything at o nce nor can we know all sbout those things we know, which is why both developing what we already know and leaarning some new things are equally important.In some cases one may find that discussing and thinking about what we already know but in a new clearer way can help us reach a conclusion whereas if we had chosen to discover new facts about it kinda, our horizon of confusion would have been broadened and we find ourselves with yet another mystery to solve. A good example of a case like this is death. Unless someone dies and comes back and tells us exactly what happens after death, no one can ever truly know what happens. Any information we all have of life after death is based on assumptions that is if there is regular life after death.Discovering new facts about the so called life after death isnt but going to cause even more confusion, so really in my office I would say it is rather best that one sticks to the knowledge and believe they have over this issue, and if anythin g, find new ways of thinking about instead of creating yet another confusing phenomena based on assumptions. But such fields as knowledge motivate constant find of new knowledge because this is one area of knowledge where falsification is the only method used to prove the theories because we cannot verify, in other words prove a Scientific surmise to be true in any way but we can pfove it fo be wrong.In this case it is clear then that in Science it is more important to discover new facts or data than to think about that which we already have as we need new discoveries to falsify obsolete theories. However sometimes it may be thinking hard and deep into a scientific theory that makes one see fault in it as a result make new discoveries in which case both thinking of something in a new way and making new discoveries would have been equally important. We can for instance look into the famous example of the falsification of Newtons theory of gravitation by Einsteins theory of rela tivity.Einstein like all other Scientists of that time saw nothing wrong with Newtons model until a crisis came when Newtons theory of gravity failed to account for the behavior of light. Obviously this had to be a result of scientists thinking of new ways of applying Newtons model. No one evaluate the negative outcome they came out with but it was negative and the Scientists were faced with a dilemma they had to solve. That it is when Einstein invented his theory of relativity, a whole new theory, which could work even for those discoveries that Newtons model failed to.In any case, the point is to show that finding new ways to think of something can actually lead to the discovery of new information which in turn gives us something new to think about and in new ways if we please. Living only by developing things we already know would be depriving ourselves off so much knowledge. Had the people who lived before our generation decided they wanted to live only on what they knew, there would be so much we do not know.Generations like that of Newton or Einstein, generations like that of Priestley or Lavoisier who made discoveries about oxygen and those of people who learn the word of God and passed it on from generation to generation till the bible was written we would not have the knowledge we have today. And the knowledge does not end there and like the paradigm shifts suggest, there lead always be new information, new theories and new ways of thinking as the world revolves that will override the current theories but should we decide to live only by the data that already exists, we may find that we are making experiments with 90% errors all the time.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) In 1989 world leaders decided that children needed a convention that protect their experts and that people recognised that children had rights too. They felt that children needed special perplexity and protection that adults do not The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the first legally concealment international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rightscivil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. The Convention has set out these rights in 54 articles and two nonobligatory Protocols.It covers all the basic human rights and states that children everywhere have the right to survival to develop to the fullest to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life. The four core principles of the Convention are non-discrimination devotion to the best interests of the child the right to life, survival and development and respect for t he views of the child. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious development of every child.The Convention protects childrens rights by setting standards in health care teaching method and legal, civil and social services. Article 29 is specifically aimed at children and their right to an education it is based on equal opportunity and states that * Primary education is compulsory and free to all * Develop different forms of secondary education which should be free and with the offer of financial assistance if needed * Make higher(prenominal) education available for all Make educational information and guidance available for all children * Encourage regular attendance and reduce the number of descent outs. It also has guidance of how education should be delivered to the children * It should develop the childs personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their full potential * It should develop the respect for the childs p arents, cultural identity, language, values and the national values of the country in which the child lives or originates from * It should repare the child for the responsibilities of life in a free society in an environment that offers peace, tolerance, equality of sexes and friendship among people * It should offer the chance to develop in a natural environment. childrenandyouthprogramme. info/pdfs/pdfs /uncrc_summary_version. pdf 27. 10. 12 www. csie. org. uk/inclusion/child-rights. shtml 27. 10. 12 www. unicef. org/crc/ 27. 10. 12
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
By the end of World War I, most of Africa had been effectively colonized. European colonialists had managed to quell the efforts by Africans to freeze off the establishment of colonial rule. The next two decades, the period historians call the inter-war years, were congenericly quiet years in colonial Africa. This relative quiet, however, did not indicate that the colonized people of Africa were happy with colonial rule-that there was no contrary to colonialism.During the inter-war years opposition to colonialism was expressed in one of the future(a) forms Demands for opportunity and inclusion Many Africans at this time accepted the reality of colonial rule but they did not accept the harsh discrimination and the lose of opportunity that was a central part of the colonial experience. Opposition to these aspects of colonialism was particularly strong among educated Africans.Educated Africans believed that all humans are created equal. Discriminatory colonial policies and practic e restricted economic opportunities and participation in the political process. During this period, educated Africans formed organizations to promote their interest for an end to discriminatory policies and for an increase in opportunities. However, these organizations had bound membership, and they did not make radical demands for the end of colonial rule. The South African National Congress and the West African National Congress (Nigeria/Ghana) are examples of elect African organizations.Religious opposition A number of the early anti-colonial up-risings featured in the last section were led by religious leaders. The Chimurenga (Zimbabwe) and Maji-Maji (Tanganyika) uprisings were led by African priests who were strongly opposed to colonial rule. This tradition of religious opposition to colonialism continued throughout the 20th century. However, unlike the earlier acts of religious resistance, the new opposition was led by African Christians.African Christians took seriously the Christian teachings on equality and fairness-values that were not practiced by colonial regimes. By the 1920s, some African Christian leaders were forming their own churches, sometimes called African Independent Churches. These churches that were formed in Southern, Eastern, Central and West Africa, provided a strong voice for justice. One of some(prenominal) examples is the Kimbaguist Christian Church formed in the Congo by Simon Kimbangu in the 1920s.In spite of Kimbangus imprisonment for many years by the Belgians, the Kimbanguist church grew rapidly. When the Congo became independent in 1960, the church had a membership of over one million. Economic opposition During this time period economic opposition was much not well formulated. However, there were attempts in the 1920s and 1930s by mine workers in southern Africa and port workers in West and East Africa to organize into unions. While important, these activities had little impact on the majority of African peoples.Of gr eater impact were the less organized but more widespread efforts of African farmers to resist colonial demands on their labor and their land. Module Nine African Economies provides an example of how small scale African farmers in Mali quietly, but effectively, resisted the attempts by colonial officials to tick the production of cotton. Mass protests During the inter-war era, there were few mass protests against colonial policies. One of the most important and interesting exceptions was the Aba Womens War that took place in southeast Nigeria in 1929.Ibo market women were upset with a number of colonial policies that threatened their economic and social position. In 1929, the women staged a series of protests. The largest protest include more than 10,000 women who had covered their faces with blue paint and carried fern-covered sticks. The women were able to destroy a number of colonial buildings before soldiers stopped the protest, killing more than fifty women in the process. Not surprisingly in contemporary Nigeria, the Aba Women are considered to be national heroes
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Re berth and Critique of Ethical Issues in the Social Workers Role in PAS (Ameda A. Manetta and Jancie G. Wells, 2001) Tracy S. Robinson kinfolk 2010 (Ameda A. Manetta and Jancie G. Wells, 2001). Ethical issues in the favorable workers role in pas. Health amp Social Work/ Volume 26, pg 3 Introduction The springs focus was on respectable issues in atomic number 101 assisted suicide and the role it plays amongst kind workers. The authors presented results of an exploratory ascertain of kind workers views on physician assisted suicide (PAS).In which social workers favored or not favor PAS and whether there is a difference in breeding or training on mental health issues, morality, or suicide that may influenced their views as well. The involvement with PAS presents an ethical dilemma, which in this article refers to a dapple in which social workers ring they imbibe no definitive guidelines for professional behavior. The article has current interest because it is important that social workers have been properly lay out and train to work with clients making end of life decision.Summary of the authors main points Purpose of the content. The purpose of the study was to determine social workers views on physician assisted suicide (PAS). The study involved participant from three separate workshops on suicide that were presented by the first author. The study subsamples sixty-six social workers. The social workers either had a reciprocal ohm Carolina social work license or a bachelors or masters degree in social work. The participants recruitment where given a questionnaire that contained twenty-six questions, most of which required yes or no responses.The study focus on how these different elements guide social workers in making ethical decisions regarding intervention with clients. There were argonas in the articles that mention how social workers had difficulties in doing that. Summary of literature review as presented by the author. The study ancho r that physician assisted suicide is one of the most frequently debated issues in American Society (Bachman et al.. , 1996 Foley, 1997). The study found that people are assign on the issues.It has brought arguments or so preservation of life, autonomy, and self-determination of individual. This gives ethical and moral complicity of end life decision making. The study found that most social worker agrees that PAS should be reserved for people who are dying from terminus illness. However the other percentage that opposes argue that underutilization of narcotics for pain control leaves terminally ill patient in pain during the end of life as well. The finding for the arguments had little look into conducted on the etiology of actual cases of PAS.Most of the available data is on suicide among individuals who acted alone. It has found that when people are experiencing personal difficulties or have lowered coping capacity, they are at risk of suicide. However terminally ill people are rarely suicidal, the authors have shown studies that the main difference betwixt terminally ill patient who become suicidal and those who dont is the nominal head of clinical depression in the patients who are suicidal. Summary of ethical issues.There are some ethical dilemmas that occur when there is a lack of acquaintance about state and federal legislation governing practice are sufficiently prepared to work responsibly with clients and family considering PAS. Some ethical issues arise when the lack of knowledge may have produced biased thinking in social workers projecting what they want in a situation onto their clients or clients family. The instruments. The researchers employ a questionnaire as their instrument in the study. The survey instrument contained twenty-six questions.The questions included demographic information on age, race, religion, and educational degree. Sampling techniques. There were a total of ninety-eight participants, including physician, psychologis ts, nurses, and social workers complete the questionnaire. The finding reported here based on a subsample of sixty-six social workers who either had a South Carolina social work license or a bachelors or masters degree in social work. Methods of data analysis. The researchers utilise the statistical program for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to analyze the data.Descriptive statistics were calculated on demographic information. A chi-square analysis was used to determine if there were any statistical relationships between social workers who agreed and those who disagreed with PAS by whether they had universal courses, additional training, and knowledge of the PAS law of South Carolina. Data collection techniques. Participants recruitment occurred at three separate workshops on suicide. As attendees enter the workshop a questionnaire was administrated to ninety-eight participants. Summary of study findings.The authors of this article had the following major findings (a) that social worke rs in South Carolina are evenly divided about who supported PAS and who did not support it. (b) circumstances under PAS would be favored for reasons other than terminal illness, were two-thirds agreed with PAS if a person had terminal illness, compared with thirty-seven percentage. (c) majority of respondents stated that they had taken university courses or had additional training in the field of mental health, ethics and suicide. Relevance of the article to social work profession.Resolving ethical problems. The authors suggest obtaining information from social worker who works with a broad spectrum of clients would help in formulating policy. Since PAS and legacy of PAS are applicable to all populations. The authors in the article also suggest that legislation should set up some type of ethical practice by requiring that social workers be licensed in one of the three levels. And social workers only should practice in areas in which they have expertise and license in. Benefits of t he article to social workers.The social workers may benefits from this article because it makes them more aware about PAS. It also benefits by informing social workers of the accountability of their action when assist clients and their families who bespeak information about PAS. The article helps social workers want to get more inform about the policies related to PAS and how it would affect them has social workers. The article gave them a broader view of end of life decision from the narrow biomedical and single focus on self-determination to one that incorporates the core value of human rights. Critique and private Opinions.Critique. The article was relevant to social work practice. The article focused on the issues that needed to be address toward social workers roles in PAS. The authors identify the ethical dilemmas that social workers have been avoiding conflicts in the view of PAS. The research that was conducted was limited due to the fact of its small sample size, but the results of it confirm the need for more extensive research in the area of social work with PAS. Personal opinions. In my opinion I would have care for the study to have been broader in their selection of participants.I think that there should have been a state wide study done. South Caroline shouldnt have been the only sate involved in their study. I believe if they had more statistics it would have capture a broader view of what they were trying to get cross. I wonder if they had given the questionnaires at the end of the workshop they would have gotten a recrudesce response in data. Improving the study. In order to improve the study what would have been done differently? I think I would have included more workshops of suicide to pull more research from the study.The study was conducted with limitations in it. Those limitations of study did affect the calculation and results of the study. I would have liked the authors to have gone farther into the dilemmas that social workers ha ve with avoidance of conflict. Conclusion. The article included valuable but limited information. The authors of this wanted to focus on the ethical dilemma that surrounded social workers with (PAS). The authors study did point out issues that needed to be address to help social worker want to make better ethical decision when it comes to dealing with end of life decision.This decision should be consistence with social worker values of protection of vulnerable populations in instantlys society. The study also identifies the need for NASW to disseminate its professional policy statement to the profession and to broaden their views of end of life decision. I believe this is a great start that the authors brought forth in helping social workers down the path to end the ethical dilemma presented toward PAS.References (Ameda A. Manetta and Jancie G. Wells, 2001)
Monday, May 20, 2019
Problem Statement rife has become a grocery store draw in global consumer products except slams that innovation is vital to continue success. paramount has used technology to establish an innovative s cede, but wants to make sure that it is positioned effectively. Situation Analysis * Customers Male consumer products demand been trending upward in the last decade. The client segments atomic number 18 broken up into three areas social/emotional, involved s welcome users, and unaffectionate or maintenance users. Social/emotional are responsible for 39% of Nondisposable razors, Involved is for 28%, and maintenance users account for 33%.In 2009 consumers razors and replacement cartridges at a higher rate than ever before. * Competitors disceptation includes direct competition as well as substitutes for Nondisposable razors. In 2010 the three major players were prevalent, Prince, and Benet & Klein (B&K). Prince generally focuses on super-exchange premium products. B&K enter ed the Nondisposable commercialise in 1985. at that place are also in the raw entrants which account for the rest of the market. In 2010 dominant is expected to have a 21. 4% dollar market share. * Comp each Paramount is a large consumer products company with $7 billion in gross benefit in 2009.The current Nondisposable razor line has products in both the market and value customer segments. The Clean meet shave is the depression Nondisposable razor produced by Paramount that has a proficient innovation. Paramount is relying on the Clean adjoin razor to increase sales and collect to a greater extent market share in the Nondisposable razor category. * Context In 2011 the effects of a recession are becoming less drastic than in years before. Customers have more disposable income and companies have more money to spend on investments such as media/advertising and R&D. Collaborators (retailers) In 2009 food stores represented 42% of all razors and cartridges. Other distributo rs include drug stores, cumulus merchandisers, club stores, and other distributors. As SKUs increase, shelf space is increased to accommodate for all of the different products. Distributors are pass oning to increase shelf space because the margin on razors is high compared to other consumer products. Alternatives Position the Clean edge razor as a ceding back product for highly involved groomers looking for a superior shaving experience. Pros * less(prenominal) cannibalization. Social shavers right now arent interested in the Pro or assistant razor. Paramount is concerned with the overall meshability of all the razor lines. By side the Clean Edge razor as a niche product, the check off equity of Pro and Avail wont be as affected as if the Clean Edge shave was positioned as mainstream. The current customer segment for emotional shavers is 39%. With over 1/3 of the customer segment involved with emotional razor purchases there is a decent sized market that could use the ben efits of the Clean Edge razor. * The net operating(a) profit based on financial analysis is higher than the mainstream positioning strategy.There are advantages of positioning the as a niche product. Advantages * One advantage is that customers will be more involved, so they will precede the prison term to research the product. After the consumer investigates the Clean Edge Razor, he will be able to secernate that there is a clear advantage and the Clean Edge Razor is the best option. * Another attainable advantage could be that Paramount could increase the size of the social/emotional market. Cons * Clean Edge Razor is losing out on potential sales because the market is much smaller. * Another con is the negative grass awareness.Even if Paramount created the greatest razor of all time, the brand wouldnt become stronger because only people who know about razors would know that Paramount is making technological innovations. Through a niche market Paramount would need to rely on their other razors to remain relevant to the mass market. This could prove to be effortful as other companies continue to come out with new razors. Disadvantages * The investment spent on R&D to create the Clean Edge Razor was substantial it will take longer to earn back the money spent on developing the Clean Edge Razor.Position the Clean Edge Razor to the Mass Market Pros * More people will be undetermined to the product. This will lead to greater sales. This will also improve brand equity. Through this positioning strategy Paramount will have a razor in each segment. * Although not as profitable, this positioning strategy will settle down make a profit and build brand equity. Advantage * Paramount will be viewed as innovative and keeping up with competition. A company that is stagnant falls behind. Through marketing this razor to everyone, Paramount will be viewed as taking the next step to create the best razor.Currently Paramount isnt working on any other innovative razors s o this technology will have to be available to all different types of customers. Cons * One con is that not everyone will know how the thrill will help prevent a better shave. There are also a visual modality of people who dont need a superior razor they are content with the razor the way it is. * Another con is that the razor will have to be priced lower than if it were a niche position due to competition. * Money spent on advertising. establish on the pro forma it would cost roughly $12million more to advertise to the mass market.This is risky if the Clean Edge Razor doesnt do as well as forecasted. Disadvantage * Cannibalization. Currently Pro and Avail have 22. 2% of the volume of razors sold, the largest of any pair or razors. Introducing a razor in the same market with more features will defame the sales of both the Pro and Avail. * This will also negatively impact the brand power of Paramount when the numbers are revealed and it shows that Pro and Avail are not doing as well as expected. * ground on financials this is the worst strategy to pursue. Recommendation It is important for Paramount to grow the Clean Edge Razor as well as the Pro and Avail.I recommend that the company position the Clean Edge Razor for one year as a niche position and then position the Clean Edge Razor as a mass-market razor for everyone to use. Pros * Through utilize a bit of both positioning strategies Paramount will receive the best of both worlds. One pro is less cannibalization of Pro and Avail in the number 1 two years while consumers are adapting to the Clean Edge Razor. By the time the Clean Edge is positioned as a razor for everyone the 39% of people who have already been exposed to the Clean Edge will be able to differentiate this razor from the Pro and Avail.The cannibalization after the first two years wont be as severe because people will have already been exposed to the Clean Edge Razor. * A lower price when the product is positioned differently will lead t o a larger share of social shavers. The social shavers that have been paying a premium price will be happy to pay less money. The other social shavers that dont use the Clean Edge will be more likely to use the shaver because the price will be lower meaning the consequence of the razor not meeting expectations will decrease. The sales will increase dramatically after the second year due to more potential customers. Based on my financial statements the net profit is slightly larger than the niche positioning strategy by itself. * Growing brand equity and positive word of mouth advertising through social shavers vocalizing friends and family Cons * Regardless of the positioning strategy there will still be some cannibalization. * Social shavers may see the change in positioning as a shift in quality and value that a lower price will equate to a bad razor. * The incremental net profit may be too similar to the niche positioning strategy to risk damaging brand power. Implementation P lanOn January 1, 2011 I will tell production to manufacture the Clean Edge Razor just as if we were pursuing a niche positioning strategy. We will spend the $14 Million dollars in advertising on specialty male health and fitness magazines, television shows, and piano tuner stations. We will also be relevant on social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook. There will be contests with our razors and customers will get the opportunity to spread word-of-mouth about the Clean Edge Razor. Paramount expects to make over $52 million, with most of that coming in the second year because the first year is mainly niche positioning.It is safe to say that $20-$23 million will be make in the first year. During September we will launch a new campaign positioning the razor as the everyday mans razor with advanced technology. During this time we will also outpouring a smaller ad campaign for the Pro and Avail marketing the razors as reliable and a staple of the razor market. This is why advertis ing increases overall in the combination strategy. Paramount is expecting cannibalization regardless, but using a mix of both strategies will help offset the large cannibalization from just using the mass marketing strategy.This will benefit Paramount as a company because Clean Edge Razor will be exposed to every customer segment while still trying to watch the brand power of Pro and Avail. This strategy will benefit the brands as much as possible. Also, the financials in the Appendix support this strategy over the niche and mass marketing positioning strategies. Cannibalization is inevitable but it is vital that customers from all segments see that Paramount is an innovative company determined to find new shipway to benefit their customers. Appendix
Sunday, May 19, 2019
The jackasss Egg book is well written by lessening Stoll. It was or sothing like reading a repulsive force story book. It was creepy, suspense, curiosity and scary too. The taxicab e very(prenominal)(prenominal) time breaks into a military governing body seemed to be like a ghost entering into the house and non like a bandit. We know thief will definitely when he attacks a home he will for sure grab each(prenominal) things affirmable for him to steal. But this hacker was not doing equitable that, he was wandering in the system and devising some creepy moves and disappe bed. Many a times he would just come and go just to show that he was still there. Something like a ghosts act.Cliff clearly briefs every twenty-four hourss situations, thoughts and reaction of the state around him. As we are reading this book and try to venture the description given by Cliff, we can represent how things were in those days. The FBI, NSA, NCSC and CIA reacted and helped for such case. I t was definitely very thorny for Cliff to handle the pressure of his boss and the unsupportive FBI.It was definitely a ch all toldenging case. An astronomer, who was least fire in calculator programming grunges up tracking a spy which leads him to be a master key network and information security provider. This journey of Cliff is an deterrent example to many who loose hope on their current jobs, or people who lost and dont know where they are ending up. chequer more how to deliver an analysis paperFrom this book I take back lot of things cogitate to computers, networks, the government, information security and its importance, and how to handle things under pressure and stress. There are many characters who teach us how to look at situations which very shows us a room to solve the problem.Luis Alvarez is one such example who actually showed Cliff another view of handling this case. I think it was because of him Cliff took this case as a research and not as class of his jo b.IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF THE BOOKThe very interesting part of this book is the way author relates all the problems to astronomy and physics. Most of the time it was his physicist friends who helped him crack the puzzle and regain hints cogitate to the hacker.The reader must be good at computer security or astronomy in order to understand the relations made surrounded by them by the author. Author as well analyzes people relating to physics and planet study. Cliff describes his new boss Marv Atchley and his division head Roy Kerth in physics aspect. Roy who was a college professor teaching about collisions, protons and anti-protons. He related his students and staff to his subatomic particles keep them in their orbits, stabilise them and then shoot them into static positions. Roy was fed up of the year long delays and excuses given by computer professionals.Author analyzed Roy and always made sure to start of a conversation something about relativistic physics before he could move on to computer related issues. That way author evaluate some kind of support for his tracking business, but Roy was a person who believed everything that had been proved or had some proof.This made the author to maintain a logbook, in which he entered every single word related to this case. He even had dotted down the conversations made with every person whom he contacted for help. This logbook concept actually helped him to analyze the hacker and his activities, sometimes saved him from getting screwed by his higher authorities and also helped him to write his paper tit lead Stalking the Wily Hacker.Though the techniques used by the author to take out the hacker is out dated now, but his way of approach is definitely amazing. How he relates this case to astronomy and physics is a very unique way.Another physics aspect applied for detection is When the hacker fires a universal file transfer program called Kermit. The hacker also used the Kermit program on his system, because the Kermit program checks each of its files after it has copied it from one computer to another. This proved the author that the hacker was obviously having all the sessions printed out and also copied on to a floppy disk.Here author calculates the distance between his computer and the hackers by the concept of sound travelled and its echo heard. This way he arrives at a result of 279,000 miles but since his technician Lloyd was very good at communications apologises him about the delays which occurred during communication between satellites and the earth, the hacker using a slow computer and the data transferred in the form of packets. Thus they land up with a result of 6000 miles.Another interesting way Maggie Morley cracked the word puzzle which led to a hint of hackers location. Though this is not physics approach, but definitely it is a different way of approach to solve a problem. Maggie gives the meaning of Jaeger, in German it meant Hunter and it was a name of a hunting bird. H unter and Jaeger were the passwords used by the hacker. Hedgers and Benson were the name Cigars. So this lead to a conclusion that hacker must be somewhere in Germany and that he smoked.Dave Cleveland also gives a clue, which the hacker is not from the west coast. He comes to this conclusion by seeing the hacker type ps-eafg Unix command. This meant to Dave that the hacker didnt know Berkeley Unix.The best way to learn new things is to make mistakes and learn from your mistakes and the best way to understand others is to put your legs in their shoes. Cliff uses same technique he tries to be hacker himself to break into mitre systems. He was successful in logging into Mitre and finding out holes in its internal networks. He tried to log in to Mitre through Tymnet connection as the hacker had done. This proved that it was possible for anyone to break into the most secured network systems and also helped to find the holes in the system.Cliffs astronomer friends Jerry Nelson and terry c loth Mast play an important role in helping cracking few work outs and puzzles related to the hacker. Jerry analyzed the codes and add up given by the phone technician while tracing out the hackers line. He said that 703 was area code to Virginia and C and P meant Chesapeake and Potomac. The next time they help to crack KH-11. It was a secret spy satellite, KH stands for mainstay Hole and 11 was the series number.We should also be aware that in many countries hacking is not considered as illegal or crime. Some countries actually support hackers and maintain secret group of hackers to hack in the raw information of other countries. In this case it is very difficult to take out the hackers and punish them.The author not just keeps an eye on the hackers activities and trying to trace him but also tries to explain it to other authorities who could help him with this case. So he begins to talk to people at FBI, Teejay at CIA, Zeke at NCSC, some spies and spooks. That way he actually becomes a spy himself trying in his own way to catch the hacker. This experience teaches him how to talk and explain things to such people and also very well understands that every department was not interested or were not ready to take up the case. This way he understands what importance people gave to the information and network security.CONCLUSIONThis book tells us how the government treated a security issue. It is really pity that they were just bothered about the loss in figures and not the slight information that was stolen. The FBI, CIA, NCSC, NSA all of them had the same idea. They were worried about their reputation or about the loss in figures. They did not realize that the hacker was stealing some very sensitive information related to the U.S army, navy, and military.If they had been co-operative to Cliff they could have caught the hacker mush before and did not need a year. But now the FBI is very concerned about the Cyber crime and identity theft. I learnt that they w ould take serious action in look into such cases. This is definitely very important in todays world. As the number of users and systems are increasing, technology is advanced, people are connected not just through telephone lines, wires and cables but also they are connected wirelessly through Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connections which make them more vulnerable to security threats.As number of users and system and technology is rising, number of cyber crimes and hackers are also increasing. Now the hackers are very intelligent unlike our Cuckoo in the book. Markus Hess could have been slowly caught with the help of the FBI and NSA as he was leaving his traces everywhere. For example the passwords and the connections used were easily predictable.Today the hacker may be sitting next to you but it is very difficult to trace them. Hence complicated and advanced techniques and technologies must be implemented. At the same time it is everybodys responsibleness to make sure that the informat ion related to them personally or professionally must be secured.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
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Friday, May 17, 2019
With over 600 felon acts resulting to much(prenominal) than $100 million in property return, the Earth press release forward has been dubbed as the most active and evil domestic terrorist conference in the United States by the federal thorax of Investigation (FBI). Un care international terrorism, mostly carried bulge out by Muslim radicals deliberateking Holy War with America, domestic terrorism falls under the category of special interest revolutionarys according to the FBI, the lead agency in counterterrorism.Special interest extremists conduct acts of politically motivated violence to force segments of society, including the general public, to change attitudes around issues considered important to their ca mappings. These assorts occupy the extreme fringes of wolf rights, pro-life, environmental, antinuclear, and other movements (FBI, 1999, p. 20). The goblin conducts random economic cosset by destroying facilities and industries involve in logging, genic eng ineering, vim production and auto making to prevent the victimization of the born(p) environment.The group believes that in order to act up the earths ecological balance they get hold of to tear down the U. S. capitalist economic clay that continually abuses nature for profit. James F. Jarboe, FBIs Domestic Terrorism Section Chief, testified in 2002 before the U. S. copulation describing the rascal as the top domestic terror group which could become a serious little terror to nuclear sites. In 2005, the U. S. plane section of Homeland Security branded hob as the most high-pressure terrorist element among the radical environmental movement. Members, who call themselves Elves, engage in a new brand of detestation named eco-terrorism.They be committed to defend their cause by all means necessary through require actions and revolutionary violence. Due to the autonomous nature of the movement with no formal chain of command, law enforcement agencies admitted that they acqu ire difficulty in infiltrating the group despite several major arrests and indictments. The FBI alleged that William C. Rodgers was the leader of the group. He was arrested in December 2005 unless committed suicide while in jail using a pliant bag. rapscallions base of operation is mainly located in Canada, United Kingdom, and United States. crinkle rascal originated in 1992 in Brighton, England devoted to protect and save the environment. It was established by a more radical group of activists known as Earth First who thinks that cruel acts like economic sabotage would better advanced its cause rather than legal protests. The name was derived from another movement fleshly dismissal Front (ALF) who likewise use the same method in promoting their ideals of liberating the animals from abuse. The two organizations forged alliance in 1997 and have claimed more than 1,200 criminal acts causing over $100 million in property alter for the past 15 long cartridge clip.Members employ illegal direct actions by using arson in confronting companies and figures they see as abusive and immoral. With much(prenominal) tactic they hope to impose economic loss or lame business operations. ELF surfaced in America in 1996 by burning a U. S. Forest armed service truck in Oregons Willamette National Forest and spray-painted the building with anti-logging slogans. Since then, ELF continued struggle big businesses year after year becoming the most wanted terrorist group. The movement is funded by blind drunk benefactors and other allied organizations sympathetic to its cause like the People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA).Organization, Ideology and simulated military operation ELF is an underground movement with a decentralize structure. It is a loose network of small groups or individuals who sympathize with the movement. Any sensation bath be a member as long as he or she simply follows the ELFs guidelines to inflict maximum economic damage on those profiting from the remnant and exploitation of the natural environment, to reveal to, and to educate the public slightly the atrocities committed against the earth and all species that populate it and to communicate all necessary precautions against harming life (Rosebraugh, 2004, p.18). The group is practically invisible with no authorized members, leaders or spokesperson. In this manner, they can continue to freely fight for their cause without the fear of being imprisoned and this practice has been proven to be very potent. The group is rooted in an ideology that considers all living organisms on earth possess moral rights and deserve equal care as the humans. In addition, the ELF in like manner believes in deep ecology favoring the rollback of civilization and restoring the environment damaged by selfish interests brought about by the industrial age.This philosophy maintains that modernization has created endless injustices on the planet that will lead to the destruction of human existence on earth and the extinction of wildlife habitat. ELF recognizes that the environmental movement has failed to bring the core across and brought about changes in preserving the environment. The legal protests did not catch the attention of the public and the government but instead laws have encouraged many big businesses to profit from the exploitation of the earths natural resources.Members of the group believe that it is within their rights to protect the environment and enforce the natural law. They accomplish their mission in many innovative tactics or techniques. Their primary weapon is arson burning various properties, search laboratories, vehicles, equipment, and buildings. They would use crude subversive devices like candles that are attached to a plastic jugs filled with gasoline. They use booby trapped letters with poisoned razor blades and issue death threats to exploiters. Members also engage in malicious mischief by spray characterization their sharpens a s well as break windows and glue locks.In addition, the ELF advocates monkeywrenching, a euphemism for acts of sabotage and property destruction against industries and other entities perceived to be damaging to the natural environment. Monkeywrenching includes manoeuver spiking, arson, sabotage of logging or kink equipment, and other types of property destruction (FBI, 2002, 10). Their main goal is moreover to channel public attention to their cause and not kill people. So far of all the criminal acts the group committed there has been no single human casualty reported.The group has become effective in their campaign while eluding authorities because of its leaderless resistance. Leaderless resistance is a technique by which terrorist groups can carry out violent acts while reducing the risk of infiltration by law enforcement elements. The basal principle of leaderless resistance is that there is no centralized authority or chain-of-command. The various cells are coupled by sha red ideology but otherwise are autonomous, for the most part unconnected and unfathomed to each other (Leader & Probst, 2004, p. 2). Before an attack is executed, the group plans carefully its every move.Members would thoroughly study the target with video and photo surveillance, conduct intelligence gathering, and research the industry. In 2001, the ELF came out with a handbook entitled Setting Fires with Electrical Timers An Earth Liberation Front Guide. The 37-page manual details how to assemble an old-fashioned Kitchen Timer and a SCR Digital Timer complete with instructions, tips, diagrams, materials, and tools needed. It advises members on the rules of a successful arson, where to place incendiary devices, and fuel requirements to burn down a building.Currently, ELF has launched a nationwide campaign of arson against genetic engineering and genetically modified organism activities. The group believes that these actions, genetically alternating life forms, are types of con quering and destruction. In its Illegal Incidents Report A 25 Year History of Illegal Activities by Eco and Animal Extremists, the Foundation for Medical Research in Washington, D. C. noted that both ELF and its partner ALF were responsible for 529 attacks against research facilities, universities, drug discovery companies, and various organizations from 1981 to 2005.The assaults were made up of vandalism (45%), theft (23%), harassment (15%), arson (10%), and battery (7%). According to U. S. law enforcement, radical environmentalism currently poses the most visible homegrown threat to the national credentials of the United States. As recently as June 2004, the FBI designated eco-terrorismthe use of or threat to use violence in protest of harm inflicted on animals and the worlds biosphereas the countrys number one militant challenge emanating from inside its own borders (Chalk, Hoffman, Reville, & Kasupski, 2006, p. 47).Criminal Activities This shadowy movement has unprecedented re cord of criminal activities that continuously threaten American society and democracy. Their history of violence expands across the U. S. hitting various institutions much(prenominal) as government, private citizens, education, and other forms of development. In 1997, ELF parent down the Bureau of Land instruction horse corral in Oregon and on the following year set fire on a ski resort in Vail, Colorado that resulted in $12 million in damages. The group set seven separate fires destroying triplet buildings and damaging four chairlifts.The FBI considered this event as the most destructive act of eco-terrorism in U. S. history. In 1999, ELF radicals were involved in the burning of an 8,000 square-foot structure of the Boise shower logging company in Monmouth, Oregon and the destruction of the Agricultural Hall of the Michigan State University. In September 8, 2001, the group burned a McDonald outlet in Tucson causing $500,000 in damages. In 2003, this extremist set fire on a ho using complex that was under pull in San Diego knock down a five-storey building and a 100-foot crane.The damage was estimated at $50 million. Six weeks later, they burned three other houses that were being built within the area. In addition, the ELF assaulted three car dealers in southern calcium setting ablaze 40 Hummers and SUVs amounting to $2 million in damages. The group vandalized the cars by painting the words Fat Lazy Americans. They did the same in Los Angeles where 125 sport utility vehicles were also vandalized and burned inside auto dealer shops and along the neighborhood.According to FBI investigations the ELF were responsible for attacking vehicle dealerships and construction sites. In February 2005, the group burned down a new Pinewoods apartment complex in Sutter Creek, California with an incendiary device leaving a graffiti that said We Will Win ELF. louver months after, the same group torched two homes that were under construction in Whatcom County, Washingto n causing $100,000 in damages to the other house while the other one was destroyed. They also vandalized and damaged a number of construction equipment.The arson campaign went on in 2006 with the burning of more houses. In Camano Island, Washington, the ELF set fire on a 9,600 square foot trophy house worth $3 million. In its official communication made in 1997, the ELF declared their struggle to free all species in the planet. We are the burning rage of this dying planet. The war of greed ravages the earth and species die out every day. ELF works to speed up the collapse of industry, to scare the rich, and to undermine the foundations of the state. We embrace social and deep ecology as a practical resistance movement.We have to show the enemy that we are serious about defending what is sacred. Together we have teeth and claws to match our dreams. Our greatest weapons are imagination and the ability to concern when least expected (Pickering, 2007, p. 10). Operation Backfire In resp onse to the attacks, the FBI initiated in 2004 Operation Backfire intend to investigate acts of terrorism by the ELF. It put together several independent investigation bodies from the agencys Portland, Oregon field office and rounded up suspected eco-terrorists. Seven people were arrested in four different states.They were Stanislas Meyerhoff, Chelsea Gerlach, Daniel McGowan, Darren Thurston, Kevin Tubbs, William Rodgers, and Kendall Tankersley. In addition, five others were taken into custody namely Jonathan Paul, Josephine Overaker, Rebecca Rubin, Suzanne Savoie and Joseph Dibee. Federal prosecutors together with U. S. Attorney customary Alberto Gonzales indicted in 2006 11 suspects with 65 counts of conspiracy charges to commit arson in Oregon, Washington, Wyoming, Colorado and California. Many of those get the picture turned informants for the government.The arrests and indictments were the outcome of a nine-year old investigation on the series of arsons in America where the E LF claimed responsibility. The operation is on going around the country. Those participating in the investigation besides the FBI are the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), the Eugene Police Department, the Portland Police Bureau, the Oregon State Police, the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Bureau of Land Management, the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the Oregon Department of Justice and the Lane County Sheriffs Office.Some of those arrested have been convicted of the crime in U. S. Federal Courts. They are as follows Stanislas Meyerhoff 13 years, Kevin Tubbs 12 years 7 months, Chelsea Gerlach 9 years, Kendall Tankersley 3 years 10 months, Suzanne Savoie 4 years 3 months, Darren Thurston 3 years 1 month, Daniel McGowan 7 years, Jonathan Paul Sentencing in abeyance, Joyanna Zacher 7 years 8 months and Nathan Block 7 years 8 months (DOJ, 2007, 4). Other suspects were released on bails while some were placed on restrictions pending their trial.A few decided to cooperate while the rest remain imprisoned. Operation cringe was highly criticized because of coercion and paid informants. Other sectors called the bold move unconstitutional but Atty. General Gonzales argued that such acts only constitute violent criminal activity, which may violate the right of every U. S. citizen. Conclusion Terrorist groups like the ELF are anti-progress and as long as development continues they will not stop their modus operandi in terrorizing the public and businesses, which already have incurred heavy losses.The scenario is extremely dangerous and alarming. It is imperative that authorities and intelligence organizations have to assess the threat and study the behavior of these terrorists who are becoming more advanced and knowledgeable in their strategies. There is a need for effective counterstrategies to detect and prevent acts of terror at the same time proper allocation of resources in order to efficiently combat these adversaries. As a loos e organization, ELF could become even more dangerous because its members do not follow any rules.The group incessantly poses great risk to the countrys democracy, endangers American lives and undermines the constitution that guarantees protection to the citizens. There is also theory that such group could turn violence as a way of life and spread its corrupt ideals to the younger generation, which is already affected by media violence. For the government to combat this kind of domestic terrorism, it has to take more proactive actions in preventing further destructions to the economy. While doing so, its programs should remain within the framework of freedom without violating ones constitutional rights.Authorities must strengthen their intelligence network to prevent arson attacks. Though the ELF has its right to voice their concerns, they must be contained and stopped immediately. References FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). (1999). Terrorism in the United States 1999. Counte rterrorism. 30 Years of Terrorism A Special Retrospective Edition. Threat Assessment and Warning Unit Counterterrorism Division. Report. Federal Bureau of Investigation Rosebraugh, C. (2004). Burning Rage of a Dying Planet (P) Speaking for the Earth Liberation.Lantern Books, immature York. Leader, S. H. & Probst, P. (2004). The Earth Liberation Front and Environmental Terrorism. Retrieved December 2, 2007, from http//cjc. delaware. gov/PDF/ELF%20ALF%20article. pdf Chalk, P. (2006). Trends in Terrorism Threats to the United States and the time to come of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act. RAND monograph series. RAND Center for Terrorism Risk Management Policy. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA. ISBN 0833038222 Pickering, L. J. (2007). Earth Liberation Front 1997-2002. Arissa Media Group 2nd ed. , New York.FBI. (2002). Testimony of James F. Jarboe, Domestic Terrorism Section Chief, Counterterrorism Division, FBI Before the dwelling Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Fo rest Health. http//www. fbi. gov/congress/congress02/jarboe021202. htm DOJ (Department of Justice). (2007). Final Sentencing Hearing Held in Case of Earth Liberation Front (ELF) and Animal Liberation Front for Acts of Eco-Terrorism in Five Western States. Press Release. Retrieved December 2, 2007, from http//portland. fbi. gov/dojpressrel/2007/elfsentencing080307. htm