Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Economics Paper Essay Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the total number of goods and services produced in an economy in a given year. Measured in monetary terms, it reflects the general output of an economy per given period of time. The so-called Ã¢â¬Å"price basket indexÃ¢â¬ (the average price levels for all goods and services in an economy) is the standard maeasure of GDP (the base year is arbitrary). GDP, however, is a standard measure itself. It is used to measure business cycles. Business cycles are generally fluctuations of aggregate production schedules per given period of time (usually monthly). Several theorists attempted to formalize the theory behind business cycles to no avail. Explanatory variables offered by these theorists were either insignificant or in contradiction with accepted economic principles. In any case, the ratio of GDP to the potential GDP can serve as an indirect measurement of the level of production fluctuation in the economy. If the ratio is close to 1, then the level of business cycle in an economy is also minimal. If the variance is large, then the economy experiences high levels of production fluctuations. In order to remove these fluctuations, actual GDP must equal potential GDP. If an economy achieves potential GDP, then it is Pareto Efficient. Hence, the amount of fluctuations (which characterized inefficiency) is close to zero. The determination of fiscal policies is solely the function of the government. Fiscal policies refer to expenditures a government undertakes to provide goods and services and to the way in which the government finances these expenditures (like taxes and subsidies). In the United States, some of the agencies concerned with setting fiscal policies are as follows: agencies of the federal government like the Defense Department, Trade Department, and the Bureau of Internal Revenue, and agencies of state governments. Generally, fiscal policies can be undertaken by all levels of government. The general functions of these bodies are as follows: 1) Provide goods and services that the market will usually not provide; 2) Provide economic infrastracture that will facilitate the flow of goods and services in an economcy; 3) Increase government spending during times of uncertainty, economic crisis, and recessions; 4) Provide businesses and investors an elaborate system of information in order to reduce transaction costs; 5) And, create incentives schemes in order to encourage increased production (or create an optimal tax system where firms that produce negative externalities would be heavily taxed to reach the social optima). Fiscal policies encourage increased production in two ways. By providing incentive schemes or subsidies to particular industries, the government can expect a long-term increase in the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s output. Increasing government expenditure is seen by investors and firms as a sign of expected economic growth (psychological). By increasing government expenditure, the national income increases by a certain amount depending on the government multiplier (note that Y = C + I + G + NX). An increase in G reflects an increase in Y. This induces other participants in an economy to spend more (therefore save less). Increased government spending also has bearing on employment, inflation, and general wage levels. Sustained government spending results to sustained inflation. Employment is ambiguously affected (this depends on the capacity of the economy to create jobs). Wage levels decreases in the long-run because of lower aggregate demand for labor. In many cases, fiscal policies are matched with monetary policies in order to achieve a desirable economic state. However, the use of monetary policies is more complicated. Hence, a separate analysis must be reserved for this topic.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Virtual-Reality Helmet Battered and bloody, I sluggishly rose to my feet. At first, it took me awhile to realize where I was. The toilet bowl where my head had been dangling into just seconds earlier was smeared with blood from cuts on my face. My hair was dripping with toilet water. Downhearted, I calmly approached the mirror to see just how bad it was this time. With a sigh, I began cleaning myself. Perhaps I'm starting too far into my story; let me rewind. It was my senior year in New York, and I was preparing for college. There was a new computer, which had satellite connection capabilities to the internet that would be perfect. I had finally saved enough money to buy it; so on a Friday, I went to the mall. I wore a long coat hoping no one would recognize me. Creeping into the computer outlet, I told a clerk what I wanted. As I made my way out of the store, I was jumped. Looking up, I saw it was the popular, rich kids who were enraged by me owning something nice. They had no trace of kindness this time. They dragged me kicking and screaming into the secluded bathroom. Forcing my head into the toilet, they flushed and kicked me in the abdomen, until I passed out. After spending a great deal of time rinsing and cleansing the crud from my hair and the gunk from my face, I walked out of the bathroom. As I had figured, the mall was closed and the entrances locked. I walked around until I came to the computer store where all this had started. The doors had been suspiciously left open, so I went in. It wasn't like it had been before; there were what looked like futuristic helmets that filled most of the store. Curious, I treaded over towards one and touched it. Lights of all colors illuminated on the helmet and I froze. Seconds later, I bravely grasped the helmet and, with my eyes closed, slipped it on my head. When I opened my eyes, I was no longer where I had been. I was looking over glimmering white cliffs down at an ocean. There was a group of people around a fire, making smoke signals, who wore clothing from which I had only seen in history books and movies. Confused, I walked to them and asked, "Where am I? Virtual-Reality Helmet :: Technology Essays Research Papers Virtual-Reality Helmet Battered and bloody, I sluggishly rose to my feet. At first, it took me awhile to realize where I was. The toilet bowl where my head had been dangling into just seconds earlier was smeared with blood from cuts on my face. My hair was dripping with toilet water. Downhearted, I calmly approached the mirror to see just how bad it was this time. With a sigh, I began cleaning myself. Perhaps I'm starting too far into my story; let me rewind. It was my senior year in New York, and I was preparing for college. There was a new computer, which had satellite connection capabilities to the internet that would be perfect. I had finally saved enough money to buy it; so on a Friday, I went to the mall. I wore a long coat hoping no one would recognize me. Creeping into the computer outlet, I told a clerk what I wanted. As I made my way out of the store, I was jumped. Looking up, I saw it was the popular, rich kids who were enraged by me owning something nice. They had no trace of kindness this time. They dragged me kicking and screaming into the secluded bathroom. Forcing my head into the toilet, they flushed and kicked me in the abdomen, until I passed out. After spending a great deal of time rinsing and cleansing the crud from my hair and the gunk from my face, I walked out of the bathroom. As I had figured, the mall was closed and the entrances locked. I walked around until I came to the computer store where all this had started. The doors had been suspiciously left open, so I went in. It wasn't like it had been before; there were what looked like futuristic helmets that filled most of the store. Curious, I treaded over towards one and touched it. Lights of all colors illuminated on the helmet and I froze. Seconds later, I bravely grasped the helmet and, with my eyes closed, slipped it on my head. When I opened my eyes, I was no longer where I had been. I was looking over glimmering white cliffs down at an ocean. There was a group of people around a fire, making smoke signals, who wore clothing from which I had only seen in history books and movies. Confused, I walked to them and asked, "Where am I?
Monday, January 13, 2020
During the Renaissance, many brilliant philosophers have explored the concept of human nature. The question, what motivates humanity has been taken into consideration in the composure of virtually every society. By establishing that premise, many went on to create an ideal society with the intention of developing that thought. Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas More are outstanding representatives among them. In both MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s Utopia and MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Prince, perfect societies are constructed. However, More and Machiavelli have different opinions about the human nature in relation to the role of power and authority. Thomas More optimistically describes human nature. He depicts that man by nature is good-willed and conforming. He believes that human nature can be improved. Therefore, if the governing power is to be removed then man would be a less hostile force. Niccolo Machiavelli, on the other hand, describes human nature negatively. Man is untrustworthy, ungrateful, greedy and lying. Machiavelli suggests that man will never change and that one will always attempt to overcome the other. Power and authority is implied in the very essence of MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s work. It is tied in with the greed and selfishness. More believed human nature to be good, created by God, and susceptible to great improvement if social, political, and economic conditions were reformed so that human misery were eliminated and that fundamental human virtue were thereby liberated and nurtured. More believed in socialism insofar as it would eliminate private property, which he saw as the root of evil. He believed that when private property exists, and when money dominates all other considerations, then Ã¢â¬Å"it is hardly ever possible for a commonwealth to be governed justly or happily. Ã¢â¬ More believes that justice simply cannot exist when the Ã¢â¬Å"worst citizensÃ¢â¬ own the Ã¢â¬Å"best things,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"where property is limited to a few. Ã¢â¬ In such a situation, those who have so much are Ã¢â¬Å"always uneasy,Ã¢â¬ fearing they will have it taken, and those who have so little Ã¢â¬Å"are utterly wretchedÃ¢â¬ (More 38). Where there is no justice, people will believe that there is no reward for virtue, which will result in people behaving according to their lowest standards, rather than according to their highest. In Utopia, Thomas MoreÃ¢â¬â¢ view of human nature is far more positive than negative. While he certainly shows an awareness of the flaws in human beings, he attributes those flaws more to the environment, and political and socioeconomic factors, than to the nature of humanity. In other words, More shows that human nature can be altered by altering the environment. If the environment is improved, meaning socially, politically and economically, then the behavior of human beings will be improved, bringing out the best in human nature. So in MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s view, if the governing power and authority is to be removed then man would be a less hostile force. Machiavelli expresses his view of the basic lack of goodness in human nature. He believes that in general, most people have a primary interest in themselves, and are motivated by their financial greed. Men are mainly concerned with their property and honor. Ã¢â¬Å"When neither their property nor their honor is touched, the majority of men live contentÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ If he Ã¢â¬Å"wishes to profess goodness at all timesÃ¢â¬ he Ã¢â¬Å"must fall to ruin among so many who are not good. Ã¢â¬ If he wishes to maintain his power, he must Ã¢â¬Å"learn how not to be good, and to use it or not according to necessityÃ¢â¬ (Machiavelli 127). Machiavelli, envisions society as one that turns to power and satisfaction of vices as seen through The Prince. Machiavelli advises that to keep power one must learn to be corrupt. This advice is given due to the idea that one who knows not corruption and believes in honesty is faced with those who use manipulation as part of the job. Machiavelli also sees pursuing virtue as an act that leads to ruin, while serving vice will fortify life. Human nature is one that tends to be drawn to pleasant, satisfactory things. If there is no benefit to the self for actions performed, motivation to perform such actions will be low or nonexistent. As seen throughout history, many actions have been taken in order for people to gain power, even if that action is genocide. Men are willing to step over men in order to have power and make an enjoyable life for hisself. Such occurrences can be seen multiple times, being unprompted and completely by choice of the power hungry. According to the different point of view of human nature from More and Machiavelli above, we can understand how More and Machiavelli view power and the role of power and authority. In the Prince, the authority is in either monarchy or dictatorship. Machiavelli focuses on the manipulation of the people to maintain power. The importance lies in the fact that in a monarchy or dictatorship, one person has the power in a society and all the rest serve only to obey him. Starkly different is MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s creation. His society is a true communist one and it could also beargued that it is also a democracy. Leaders are elected by the people, who make their owndecisions freely. Nothing, not even power, is owned in that society by an individual. The power is distributed, thus empowerment. The capitalism of MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s world, the idea strongly ties in with this contrast. it was written for the use of one man to dominate over and control his kingdom, it was obviously not meant for lesser mortals. It in itself is a tool of power which could be used for only the good of the prince who uses it. Whether or not the people are empowered does not matter, it is irrelevant. It only matters that theprince uses it to maintain his own power. In contrast, Utopia is a fantasy written by More tosuggest an alternative way of life for the people. He focuses very little on the doings of the princein his ideal society; what matters in Utopia is the actions of the people. One might even say thatthe people are empowered, but the ideals that truly run the society, are empowered. MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s truefocus does not even lie in power, but in the seeking of ideals. The Utopian society highlights the unwritten laws of morality that humans possess if they are raised in a society that promotes honesty and virtue. However, Machiavelli argues that men are evil and inherent selfishness, no matter how pleasant a society raises them. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s natural tendency to lie, cheat, and steal swells up without any restrictions, destroying not only their own community but also their government. It is implied that the treatment of criminals is harsh and strict. In Utopia, More describes how this ideal society punishes itsÃ¢â¬â¢ criminals and it is obvious that they are mild and gentle. Since vice is not only destroyed, and men preserved, but they are treated in such a manner as to make them see the necessity of being honest (Utopia, 14). Although More and MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions differ greatly in their view of human nature, both works are unbelievably intriguing in that each of the societies would leave an incredible mark in history. The visual given through MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s Utopia portrays society an optimistÃ¢â¬â¢s view. More believes that when given all equal opportunities and provisions, people will lead a virtuous, unselfish life. People will work for the benefit of other people in order to create an equal and pleasant society. People only turn to corruption when faced with shortages or vanity in believing some deserve more than others. So in MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s Utopian world, the governing authority is removed and the power is distributed. However, in the Prince, PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s natural tendency to lie, cheat, and steal swells up without any restrictions, power and authority is implied in the very essence of MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s work. It is tied in with the greed and selfishness. So Machiavelli focuses on the manipulation of the people to maintain power.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Ancient Egyptian Agriculture There are many valid points to be made in Ancient Egyptian agriculture. Irrigation, ploughing and planting, harvesting, and of course, crops. These will be some of the subtopics I will be touching upon in this essay of ancient Egyptian agriculture. Irrigation When the Nile is overflowing, it floods the Delta and the lands called Libyan and Arabian, for a distance of a journey of two days from both banks in places, and sometimes, sometimes less. I could not learn anything about its nature, neither from the priests nor from anyone else. I was curious to learn why the Nile is flooding for a hundred days from the summer solstice; and when this time is passed, sinks again, and the river is low during the wholeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The whole population took part and on big estates journeying harvesting teams were employed. These itinerant reapers began the season in the southern part of the country and followed the ripening crops downriver. The administration was involved in everything the farmer did, from the assignment of the land to the collecting of the taxes, here is a quote on what some things were said: Ã¢â¬Å"Made by the overseer of fields, experienced in his office, The offspring of a scribe of Egypt, The overseer of grains who controls the measure, Who sets the harvest-dues for his lord, Who registers the islands of new land, In the great name of his majesty, Who records the markers on the borders of fields, Who acts for the king in his listing of taxes, Who makes the land-register of Egypt, The scribe who determines the offerings for all the gods, Who gives land-leases to the people, The overseer of grains, [provider] of food, Who supplies the granary with grains.....Ã¢â¬ -The Instruction of Amenemope New Kingdom M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Volume II, pp. 448f Before the harvest began, surveyors, scribes, supervisors and inspectors came to measure the size of the fields and estimated the quantity of grain. Scribes trying to impress their pupils with the harshness of a peasants daily struggle for survival, may have slightly exaggerated the methods used by tax-collectors. CropsShow MoreRelatedThe Cultural Background Of Greek Myths1858 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesEgypt and how their backgrounds influences their cultures. Cultural backgrounds play an important role in society. One moral lesson that is learned in Greek myths is about mother and daughter relationships. Egyptians also included MaÃ¢â¬â¢at in their myths as a symbol of harmony and peace. Egyptian and greek myths are significant in society because they teach valuable morals that educate oneÃ¢â¬â¢s background culture and provide possible answers to better develop their understanding of the world. 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